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  Absinthium
African Bluegrass
Ajowan
Allspice
Ambrette Seed
Amyris
Angelica
Anise (Aniseed)
Anise (Star Japanese)
Anise (Star)
Anise (Turkish)
 Armoise
Arnica
Attar of Roses
Balm of Gilead (American)
Balm of Gilead (European)
Balm of Gilead (Fir)
Balsam de Peru
Balsam de Tolu
Balsam of Mecca
Balsam Poplar
Basil
 Basil (Bourbon Type)
Bay Laurel
Bay Rum
Bee Balm
Benzoin
Benzoin (Siamese)
Benzoin (Sumatran)
Bergamot
Bergamot (Wild)
Bergamot FCF
Bergamot Mint
 Birch (Sweet)
Birch (White)
Birch Tar
Bitter Almond
Black Cumin
Black Pepper
Blue Tansy
Bois de Rose
Boldo
Boronia
Buchu
 

  Oils A-B      Oils C-E      Oils F-J      Oils K-N      Oils O-R      Oils S-Z  

 
Absinthium -- Artemisia absinthium  --- Please see Wormwood
 


 
African Bluegrass -- Cymbopogon validus  --- Please see Citronella
 Note: Cymbopogon validus (Stapf) Stapf ex Burtt Davy = Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle
Cymbopogon validus is considered a synonym of Cymbopogon nardus and may be represented as follows (Germishuizen et al., 2006)
 


 
Ajowan -- Carum copticum   aka:  Carum ajowan , Trachyspermum ammi    ---
      Extracted oil from this plant is not used in aromatherapy.  

 Currently I am unable to find specific details as to why this oil is on several people's "Don't Touch It!" list. Many sources do not give any reason whatsoever while some sources simply say "It's too toxic." or "Never use it." or "I would never have it in my house."

There are a number of oils that appear to be in a "Grey Area" category. For example, I have noticed that some authors will shy away from Cedar Leaf and Mugwort claiming that they are "Too toxic for use in aromatherapy". Then, 4 other books will go on to explain all of the uses for Cedar Leaf and Mugwort. Likely the cause for concern with these two particular oils is Thujone. Whether or not the author then goes on to talk about Thujone, this particular cause for concern is a valid one. Many sources are void of any reasons that explain why a particular oil should be avoided. Occasionally, one source here or there will even contradict itself within the same document saying that it is toxic on one page and its used for __________ on another page.

Two things seem consistent, however.

 1.  Several different book authors agree that this oil should not be used in aromatherapy.
 2. Often, merchants who have this oil listed for sale either ignore all of the warnings, don't know about them, or explain how their particular oil is somehow special and not toxic.

Erring on the side of safety, this oil will stay on my Unused list unless future information can convince me otherwise. If you are interested in some purported property or health benefit from this particular oil, consider using a different oil - we've got plenty.

Unraveling the mysteries of the Unused is a path of brambles. The search for answers continues.

A list of other oils which should not be used in aromatherapy can be viewed here -- Unused Essential Oils In Aromatherapy
 


 
Allspice -- Pimenta dioica   aka:  Pimenta officinalis Latin AliasOleum Pimenta
French NamePiment  German NameNelkenpfeffer  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Myrtales, Family: Myrtaceae, Genus: Pimenta Lindl.   Specie: Pimenta dioica  (L.) Merr.
Etymology:  Pimenta - Pepper         dioica - Having separate male and female plants
 From: Africa  C. America  Hawaii  Mexico  West Indies 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Top Astral Bodies: Mars  Uranus   Plant Catagory: Shrub
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity: Yang     Element: Fire Plant Height: 
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: Indefinite Magical Powers: Luck  Money   Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Berries
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Sweet Spicy Scent
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Health Uses: 
Body Odor   Bronchitis   Candida   Colds   Diarrhea   Flatulence   Indigestion   Menstration (Irregular)   Rheumatism  
Properties: 
Anti-fungal   Deodorant   Healing  
Oil Constituents
Eugenol 

Open Source PDF Documents for Allspice
 
1. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Essential Oils
2. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils
 
3. Essential Oils Isolated from Myrtaceae Family as Natural Insecticides
4. In Vitro Anticandidal Activity of Pimenta dioica


 
Ambrette Seed -- Abelmoschus moschatus   aka:  Hibiscus abelmoschus
French NameGrains de Ambrette  German NameBisamkörner  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Malvales, Family: Malvaceae, Genus: Abelmoschus L.   Specie: Abelmoschus moschatus  L.
Etymology:  Abelmoschus - Arabic - father of musk         moschatus - Musk-scented
 From: India U.S. Growth Region: 9
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Base Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Perennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 1-2 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: Variable Magical Powers: None Extraction: CO2
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Seeds
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Properties: 
Aphrodisiac   Fixative  


 
Amyris -- Amyris balsamifera
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Sapindales, Family: Rutaceae, Genus: Amyris P. Br.   Specie: Amyris balsamifera  L.
Etymology:  Amyris - Balsam         balsamifera - Having acorn-like parts
 From: West Indies 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Base Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 20-40 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: Indefinite Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Wood/Branches
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image 
Approaches: 
Diffuser  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-First-Trimester)
Emotional States: 
Stress (Emotional)   Stress (Mental)
Properties: 
Anti-septic-general   Anti-spasmodic   Calmative   Fixative   Sedative  
Oil Constituents
Elemol  Valerianol 
Deters These Pests: 
Cats   Mosquitoes

Abstract: 
Amyris oil is commonly used as a fixative in perfumes.

Open Source PDF Document for Amyris: 
1. Plant Oils to Combat Mosquitoes


 
Angelica -- Angelica archangelica
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Apiales, Family: Apiaceae, Genus: Angelica L.   Specie: Angelica archangelica  L.
Etymology:  Angelica - Angelic medicinal properties         archangelica - Archangel
 From: China  Denmark  Egypt  Finland  France  Germany  Greenland  Norway  Russia  Spain  Sweden 
 Recommended Dilution: High Note: Top Astral Bodies: Jupiter  Sun   Plant Catagory: Perennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity: Yang     Element: Fire Plant Height: 1-3 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: Indefinite Magical Powers:  Extraction: S/D,S/E
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point     Protection  Visions   Plant Part: Root
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image 
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Always-Dilute     Breast-Cancer(Avoid-if-have-Breast-Cancer)     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Phototoxic(mild)     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)     Prostate-Cancer(Avoid-if-have-Prostate-Cancer)
Health Uses: 
Anorexia   Asthma   Bronchitis   Bruises   Colds   Coughs   Flatulence   Headaches   Indigestion   Menopause   Menstration (PMS)   Ulcers  
Properties: 
Anti-spasmodic   Anti-viral   Carminative   Diuretic   Expectorant   Healing   Sedative   Stimulant-immune-system   Stomachic  
Oil Constituents
Bergapten  Coumarines (2%)   Limonene 
Deters These Pests: 
Insect Attractant

Abstract: 
"Naturalized over most of Europe including Lapland and Iceland. Grows along rivers, moist meadows and light forests. Odor said to resemble a strong musky juniper type scent. It is said to attact fruit flies and blackflies." -- Earthnotes 20090221

Folklore: 
The legend goes that an old monk received a message from an angel who told him that Angelica would help people survive from the plague. People chewed on raw plant stems to keep from catching the plague and burned the roots and seeds to purify the air. History tells us that Angelica was introduced in France in 1602 during the plague outbreak and has been cultivated there ever since.

Addendum(s)
 Caution
Angelica essential oil is only produced from the species Angelica archangelica. Furthermore, quality oil is only extracted from the root and root has a very low percent yield of oil at less than .1% Oil produced from the seeds is of a lower quality and often pale yellow in color. Some oil producers will mix the root oil with the seed oil in an attempt to raise profits.

Note
Those in need of aortic (heart) valve replacement who are inoperable patients are usually prescribed digitalis, diuretics, and an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor). According to Disease Prevention and Treatment - 4th Ed. (Disease Prevention and Treatment - 4th Ed.  pg 461) Angelica (taken as an extract internally) is more potent than Verapamil, a popular drug prescibed for angina, atrial fibrillation, and blood vessel spasms. Continuing on page 462 the book tells us that Angelica reduces the incidence of angina attacks and regulates an erratic heartbeat. In addition, Angelica helps to reduce blood pressure It's diuretic properties make it useful in the treatment of congestive heart failure and hypertension. Note that the book makes no mention of the use of Angelica essential oil - it only refers to the extract of Angelica.


 
Anise (Aniseed) -- Pimpinella anisum   aka:  Pimpinella anisetum Latin AliasOleum Anisi
French NameAnis  German NameAnis  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Apiales, Family: Apiaceae, Genus: Pimpinella L.   Specie: Pimpinella anisum  L.
Etymology:  Pimpinella - from Latin dipinella - meaning twice-pinnate or bi-pinnate like the leaves         anisum - Anise
 From: Asia  Bulgaria  C. America  Egypt  Germany  Greece  India  Indonesia  Italy  Mexico  Russia  S. America  Spain  Turkey 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Top Astral Bodies: Jupiter  Mercury  Sun   Plant Catagory: Annual
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity: Yang     Element: Air Plant Height: 1-2 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: Indefinite Magical Powers:  Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 124-126° F     Protection  Purification   Plant Part: Seeds
 Specific Gravity: 0.980Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Soft Fruity Scent
Approaches: 
Compress  Diffuser  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Avoid-if-have-Estrogen-Dependant-Cancers     Breast-Cancer(Avoid-if-have-Breast-Cancer)     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Phototoxic(mild)     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)     Skin-Irritant(medium)     Stupefying-in-High-Doses
Health Uses: 
Body Odor   Bronchitis   Colds   Coughs   Flatulence   Hangover   Hot Flashes   Infertility (Female)   Menopause   Muscle Aches   Throat Infections  
Properties: 
Anti-septic-general   Anti-spasmodic   Aphrodisiac   Carminative   Deodorant   Diuretic   Galactagogue   Sedative   Stimulant-general  
Oil Constituents
Anethole (70%)  
Deters These Pests: 
Mosquitoes

Abstract: 
Said to be very good for hang-over recovery. It has estrogenlike properties. (Aromatherapy: A Complete Guide to the Healing Art  pg 177) Anise solidifies, or freezes at 59 degrees F, this is a criterion value of anise. During cold weather months the anise may become solid during shipping. This is a normal occurrence. If crystallization has occurred, it is your assurance of good value anise.

Folklore: 
According to Dioscorides Anise incites coitus.

Addendum(s)
 Plant Growing Tips
Sow the seeds outside in late spring (after frost has past), 6 inches apart in dry, light soil. Plants produce ripe seeds after about 3 months. Harvest the seeds for teas, cooking, potpourri, or essential oil distillation.

Open Source PDF Documents for Anise (Aniseed)
 
1. Antimicrobial and Synergistic Effects of some Essential Oils to Fight Pathogens
2. Essential Oils as Modifiers of Rumen Microbial Fermentation
3. Essential Oils with Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Cytotoxic Properties
4. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Some Plant Essential Oils
5. Mosquito Knock-down and Adulticidal Activities of Essential Oils by Various Methods
6. Optimising Fertility with Essential Oils
 
7. Plant Oils to Combat Mosquitoes
8. Review of Pharmacological Properties and Constituents of Pimpinella anisum
9. The Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils Grown in Ash shoubak
10. The Potential Effectiveness of Essential Oils as a Treatment for Head Lice
11. Use of Essential Oils for the Management of Different Species of Dengue Mosquitoe


 
Anise (Star Japanese) -- Illicium anisatum   aka:  Illicium religiosum    ---      Extracted oil from this plant is not used in aromatherapy.  

 Be aware that Japanese Star Anise - Illicium anisatum is highly toxic! It contains an oil constituent called "anisatin" which is known to affect the nervous system and cause dramatic kidney and urinary tract inflammation.

A list of other oils which should not be used in aromatherapy can be viewed here -- Unused Essential Oils In Aromatherapy
 


 
Anise (Star) -- Illicium verum   aka:  Illicium floridanum Latin AliasOleum Anisi Stellati
French NameBandiane  German NameSternanis  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Illiciales, Family: Illiciaceae, Genus: Illicium L.   Specie: Illicium verum  Hook. F.
Etymology:  Illicium - Seditive         verum - True or genuine
 From: China  USA  Vietnam U.S. Growth Region: 9
 Recommended Dilution: High Note: Top Astral Bodies: Jupiter   Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity: Yang     Element: Air Plant Height: 10-12 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: Indefinite Magical Powers: Luck   Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Seeds
 Specific Gravity: 0.982Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Always-Dilute     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Skin-Irritant(medium)
Health Uses: 
Infertility (Female)  
Properties: 
Anti-fungal   Carminative   Diuretic   Stimulant-general   Stomachic  
Oil Constituents
Anethole 

Addendum(s)
 Caution
Be aware that Japanese Star Anise - Illicium anisatum is highly toxic! It contains an oil constituent called "anisatin" which is known to affect the nervous system and cause dramatic kidney and urinary tract inflammation.

Open Source PDF Documents for Anise (Star)
 
1. Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Illicium verum
2. Essential Oils with Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Cytotoxic Properties
 
3. Inhibitory Effect of Essential Oils Against Herpes
4. Star Anise


 
Anise (Turkish) -- Pimpinella anisetum  --- Please see Anise (Aniseed)
 


 
Armoise -- Artemisia vulgaris  --- Please see Mugwort     Latin AliasOleum Artemisia Vulgaris     
 


 
Arnica -- Arnica montana    ---      Extracted oil from this plant is not used in aromatherapy.  

 Currently I am unable to find specific details as to why this oil is on several people's "Don't Touch It!" list. Many sources do not give any reason whatsoever while some sources simply say "It's too toxic." or "Never use it." or "I would never have it in my house."

There are a number of oils that appear to be in a "Grey Area" category. For example, I have noticed that some authors will shy away from Cedar Leaf and Mugwort claiming that they are "Too toxic for use in aromatherapy". Then, 4 other books will go on to explain all of the uses for Cedar Leaf and Mugwort. Likely the cause for concern with these two particular oils is Thujone. Whether or not the author then goes on to talk about Thujone, this particular cause for concern is a valid one. Many sources are void of any reasons that explain why a particular oil should be avoided. Occasionally, one source here or there will even contradict itself within the same document saying that it is toxic on one page and its used for __________ on another page.

Two things seem consistent, however.

 1.  Several different book authors agree that this oil should not be used in aromatherapy.
 2. Often, merchants who have this oil listed for sale either ignore all of the warnings, don't know about them, or explain how their particular oil is somehow special and not toxic.

Erring on the side of safety, this oil will stay on my Unused list unless future information can convince me otherwise. If you are interested in some purported property or health benefit from this particular oil, consider using a different oil - we've got plenty.

Unraveling the mysteries of the Unused is a path of brambles. The search for answers continues.

A list of other oils which should not be used in aromatherapy can be viewed here -- Unused Essential Oils In Aromatherapy
 


 
Attar of Roses -- Rosa damascena   aka:  Rosa centifolia  --- Please see Rose Otto
 Note: Rose Otto is also known as Attar of Roses
Attar is from the Turkish word itr - meaning perfume or odour
In Turkish Rose Otto is called Itr-yàghi = "Perfume-oil" and Ghyùl-yàghi = "Rose-oil"
 


 
Balm of Gilead (American) -- Populus balsamifera   aka:  Populus candicans  --- Please see Balsam Poplar
 


 
Balm of Gilead (European) -- Commiphora opobalsamum   aka:  Amyris opobalsamum , Amyris gileadensis
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Sapindales, Family: Burseraceae, Genus: Commiphora L.   Specie: Commiphora opobalsamum  L.
From: Turkey 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Base Astral Bodies: Saturn   Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge Polarity     Element Plant Height: 3m
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: Indefinite Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Resin
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 

Abstract: 
This tree is the source of the famous "Balsam of Gilead" that is so often mentioned in the older literature. Unfortunately, this tree is rare, difficult to cultivate, and highly protected in areas where it will grow. Because of this situation, it seems unrealistic that genuine authentic oil is easy to find.


 
Balm of Gilead (Fir) -- Abies balsamea  --- Please see Fir (American Silver)
 


 
Balsam de Peru -- Myroxylon pereirae
French NameBeaume du Perou  German NamePerubalsam  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Fabales, Family: Fabaceae, Genus: Myroxylon L.   Specie: Myroxylon pereirae  L.
Etymology:  Myroxylon - Myro - sweet oil or perfume, xylon - wood         pereirae - From the port of Peru
 From: El Salvador  India  Jamaica  Mexico  Peru U.S. Growth Region: None
 Recommended Dilution: High Note: Base Astral Bodies: Earth   Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity: Yang     Element: Fire Plant Height: 20-30 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: Indefinite Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Resin
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Always-Dilute     Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Health Uses: 
Dry Skin   Eczema   Oily Skin   Ringworm   Scabies  
Emotional States: 
Exhaustion (Nervous)   Irritation (Mental)
Properties: 
Anti-biotic   Anti-fungal   Anti-inflammatory   Anti-septic-general   Balsamic   Expectorant   Fixative   Parasiticides  
Oil Constituents
Benzoic acid  Benzyl benzoate  Benzyl cinnamate  Vanillin 
Deters These Pests: 
Mosquitoes

Abstract: 
Balsam simply means a resin rich in essential oil. The tree trunks are marked with cuts from which a viscous dark resin exudes. The resin itself is allergenic so the resin is usually steam distilled or vacuum distilled to obtain the essential oil.

Open Source PDF Document for Balsam de Peru: 
1. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils


 
Balsam de Tolu -- Myroxylon balsamum   aka:  Myrosperum toluiferum , Toluifera balsamum  --- Please see Balsam de Peru
     French NameBeaume de Tolu          German NameTolubalsam          Latin AliasBalsamum Tolutanum     
 Note: Oil from the resin of this tree is very similar to that from Balsam de Peru. The main difference is only in the scent; Balsam de Tolu being somewhat sweeter and more vanilla-like.
 


 
Balsam of Mecca -- Commiphora gileadensis  --- Please see Balm of Gilead (European)
 


 
Balsam Poplar -- Populus balsamifera   aka:  Populus candicans , Populus nigra
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Salicales, Family: Salicaceae, Genus: Populus L.   Specie: Populus balsamifera  L.
From: Canada  Europe  USA U.S. Growth Region: 1-2-3
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Base Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 10-30 m
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: Indefinite Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Flower Buds
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Health Uses: 
Bruises   Eczema   Muscle Soreness   Sprains  
Properties: 
Analgesic   Anti-inflammatory   Anti-spasmodic  
Oil Constituents
Phenethyl cinnamate 

Abstract: 
Balsam simply means a resin rich in essential oil. Balsam Poplar is used in the cosmetics industry, however, I do not know if the oil is ever adulterated because of that.


 
Basil -- Ocimum basilicum
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Lamiales, Family: Lamiaceae, Genus: Ocimum L.   Specie: Ocimum basilicum  L.
Etymology:  Ocimum - Greek ozein - smelling, a type of clover         basilicum - Comes from the Greek word meaning a petty king, royal, princely
From: Asia  Europe  India  Madagascar  USA 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Middle Astral Bodies: Jupiter  Mars   Plant Catagory: Annual
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity: Yang     Element: Fire Plant Height: 
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: Indefinite Magical Powers:  Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 123-125° F     Love  Money  Protection   Plant Part: Flowers/Leaves
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image Deep Spicy Scent
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Do-Not-Use-in-the-Bath     Epilepsy(Avoid-if-you-have-epilepsy)     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)     Skin-Irritant(high)     Stupefying-in-High-Doses     Use-Sparingly
Health Uses: 
Bronchitis   Colds   Dementia   E. coli   Earaches   Fever   Gout   Headaches   Insomnia   Menstration (Scanty)   Mental Fatigue   Migraines   Prostate (General Problems)   Scorpion Sting   Sinus Congestion   Snake Bite   Spider Bites   Vomiting   Whooping Cough   Wounds  
Emotional States: 
Anxiety   Depression   Stress (Mental)
Properties: 
Analgesic   Anti-bacterial   Anti-catarrh   Anti-depressant   Anti-infectious   Anti-inflammatory   Anti-microbial   Anti-spasmodic   Aphrodisiac  
Oil Constituents
γ-Cadinene (2%)
α-Cadinol (3%)
β-Caryophyllene (5.3%-10.5%)
1,8 Cineole (14%)
Eugenol (9%)
Linalol
Linalool (44.2%-69.3%)
Methyl chavicol (2.4%-85%)
β-Ocimene (3%)
Pinene
Safrole
Terpineol
Zingiberene (5%)
Deters These Pests: 
Mosquitoes

Addendum(s)
 Plant Growing Tips
Sow the seeds outside in late spring (after frost has past), in rich, well drained soil with full sun. Harvest a couple of leaves and buds weekly to encourage plant growth. Harvest leaves for teas, cooking, potpourri, or essential oil distillation.

Open Source PDF Documents for Basil
 
1. A Review on Antidermatophytic Efficiency of Plant Essential Oils
2. Analgesic Potential of Essential Oils
3. Antibacterial Activity of Six Essential Oils Against Pathogenic Bacteria
4. Antibacterial Activity of Thyme Essential Oil Alone and with Other Oils
5. Antibacterial Effects of the Essential Oils of Commonly Consumed Medicinal Herbs
6. Antifungal Activity and Chemical Composition of Twenty Essential Oils Against Fungi
7. Antifungal Investigations on Plant Essential Oils. A Review
8. Antimicrobial Activity of Three Essential Oils from Benin on Five Oral Germs
9. Antimicrobial and Antiviral Effects of Essential Oils from Apiaceae and Lamiaceae
10. Antimicrobial and Synergistic Effects of some Essential Oils to Fight Pathogens
11. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activities and Chemical Composition of Thai Spices
12. Antioxidant Activity of Basil
13. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Essential Oils
14. Aromatherapy and Nursing: Historical and Theoretical Conception
15. Aromatherapy in the Management of Psychiatric Disorders
16. Basil - Chemical Compositions, Antiviral and Antioxidant Activities
17. Central Properties and Chemical Composition of Ocimum basilicum
 
18. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Ten Plants
19. Christmas Gingerbread and Christmas Cheer
20. Essential Oil Composition of Three Sweet Basil Cultivars
21. Essential Oils in Combination and Their Antimicrobial Properties
22. Essential Oils with Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Cytotoxic Properties
23. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of a Sizable Set of Essential Oils
24. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Some Plant Essential Oils
25. Menthone and Estragole Rich Essential Oil of Ocimum basilicum from Iran
26. Mosquito Knock-down and Adulticidal Activities of Essential Oils by Various Methods
27. Mosquito Repellents in Thailand
28. Plant Oils to Combat Mosquitoes
29. Plant-based Insect Repellents: A Review of their Efficacy and Testing
30. Treating a Brown Recluse Spider Bite
31. Use of Essential Oils for the Management of Different Species of Dengue Mosquitoe
32. Versatile Psychophysiological Potencies of Essential Oils
33. Volatile Oil Studies of some Aromatic Plants in Taif Region


 
Basil (Bourbon Type) -- Ocimum basilicum  --- Please see Basil     Latin AliasOleum Ocimum Basilicum     
 Note: Bourbon Basil essential oil is a skin irritant and potential health risk because of its typically high Methyl chavicol content (70-90%). If you choose to use this oil do so with extreme caution. It's cultivated and produced on Réunion Island (French Territory) located in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar. Réunion Island used to be known as "Bourbon", hence the name "Bourbon Type".
 


 
Bay Laurel -- Laurus nobilis Latin AliasOleum Carophylli
French NameLaurier  German NameLorbeerfrüchte  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Laurales, Family: Lauraceae, Genus: Laurus L.   Specie: Laurus nobilis  L.
Etymology:  Laurus - Laurel, evergreen trees         nobilis - Noble or notable
From: Mediteranean  Morocco  S. America  Spain  Turkey  West Indies U.S. Growth Region: 5-6-7-8
 Recommended Dilution: High Note: Base Astral Bodies: Mars  Neptune  Sun   Plant Catagory: Shrub
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Base-Middle Polarity: Yang     Element: Fire Plant Height: 10-20 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: Indefinite Magical Powers:  Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 125-127° F     Clairvoyance  Protection  Purification   Plant Part: Leaves
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image 
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Always-Dilute     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)     Skin-Irritant(high)
Properties: 
Anti-microbial   Anti-septic-general  
Oil Constituents
Bornyl acetate (2%)
1,8 Cineole (52%)
Limonene (5%)
Linalol
Linalool (3%)
Methyl eugenol
β-Myrcene
α-Phellandrene (1%)
Pinene
α-Pinene (4%)
β-Pinene (2%)
Sabinene (6%)
Terpinen-4-ol (3%)
α-Terpinene (2%)
α-Terpineol (2%)
Terpineol acetate
Terpinyl acetate (9%)
Deters These Pests: 
Mosquitoes

Addendum(s)
 Plant Growing Tips
Sow the seeds outside in late spring (after frost has past), in most soils with full sun. Harvest leaves for cooking, potpourri, or essential oil distillation.

Open Source PDF Documents for Bay Laurel
 
1. Antibacterial Activity of Thyme Essential Oil Alone and with Other Oils
2. Antimicrobial Properties of Some Essential Oils against Pathogenic Microorganisms
3. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Essential Oils
4. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Laurus nobilis
5. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils
6. Essential Oils with Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Cytotoxic Properties
 
7. Plant Oils to Combat Mosquitoes
8. Seasonal and Geographical Variation of Lauris nobilis L. Essential Oil
9. Susceptibilities of Candida albicans Mouth Isolates to Antifungal Agents
10. Use of Essential Oils for the Management of Different Species of Dengue Mosquitoe
11. Variation in the Essential Oil Composition of Laurus nobilis in Iran


 
Bay Rum -- Pimenta racemosa   aka:  Myrcia acris , Pimenta acris  --- Please see Bay Laurel
     French NameHuile de Bay          German NameBay     
 Note: Bay Rum essential oil is steam distilled from the leaves of the Pimenta racemosa (Myrtaceae) tree and then often followed by vacuum distillation to remove terpenes. (Bo Jensen's Website)   The tree originates in the West Indies. The oil has a sweet spicy scent and is commonly used in soaps, perfumes, and cosmetics.

A very similar oil has been obtained from the species Pimenta acris which can be found in the Cameroon Islands - (Schimmel & Co. Semi-Annual Report - 1903 Oct  pdf pg. 14)

I suspect that Bay Rum essential oil which has been steam distilled from the leaves has medicinal value, however, once the terpenes are removed the properties of the oil will certainly change. Currently I am unaware if Bay Rum essential oil is distilled for the purposes of medicinal use. If it is I imagine it might be difficult to determine a "medicinal-use" Bay Rum oil from a "commercial-use" Bay Rum oil.

Please see:
  (Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of oil of Pimenta racemosa)
(Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Pimenta racemosa Leaves)

If anyone has further information about this topic, please let me know.

 


 
Bee Balm -- Monardia fistulosa  --- Please see Monarda
 


 
Benzoin -- Styrax benzoin Latin AliasResina Benzoë
French NameBenjoin  German NameBenzoëharz  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Ebenales, Family: Styracaceae, Genus: Styrax L.   Specie: Styrax benzoin  L.
Etymology:  Styrax - Ancient name of a tree that produces resin - fragrant resin         benzoin - From an Arabic name
From: Borneo  Java  Sumatra  Thailand  Vietnam U.S. Growth Region: None
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Base Astral Bodies: Sun   Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity: Yang     Element: Fire Plant Height: 10-12 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: Indefinite Magical Powers:  Extraction: N/A
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 135-137° F     Prosperity  Purification   Plant Part: Gum
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Internal-Use-May-Plug-Kidney-Tubules     Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Health Uses: 
Arthritis (Rheumatoid)   Asthma   Body Odor   Bronchitis   Colic   Coughs   Dry Skin   Gout   Laryngitis   Rheumatism   Wounds  
Properties: 
Anti-septic-general   Carminative   Deodorant   Expectorant   Fixative   Sedative   Vulnerary  
Oil Constituents
Benzoic acid  Cinnamic acid  Styrene 

Abstract: 
The tree trunks are marked with cuts from which a thick dark resin exudes.

Addendum(s)
 Note
Its often said that Benzoin actually becomes more valuable with age.


 
Benzoin (Siamese) -- Styrax tonkinensis  --- Please see Benzoin
 Note: Siamese Benzoin has a sweeter more Vanilla-like scent and a lower concentration of Cinnamic acid than does Sumatran Benzoin.
 


 
Benzoin (Sumatran) -- Styrax benzoin  --- Please see Benzoin
 Note: Sumatran Benzoin has a stronger scent and a higher concentration of Cinnamic acid than does Siamese Benzoin.
 


 
Bergamot -- Citrus aurantium   aka:  Citrus bergamia Latin AliasOleum Bergamii
French NameBergamote  German NameBergamottefrüchte  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Sapindales, Family: Rutaceae, Genus: Citrus L.   Specie: Citrus aurantium  L.
Etymology:  Citrus - Citrus like, from Citron in Judaea         aurantium - Orange colored
From: Italy  Morocco  New Guinea 
 Recommended Dilution: Low Note: Top Astral Bodies: Sun   Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity: Yang     Element: Fire Plant Height: 20-30 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: Variable Magical Powers: Money   Extraction: C/P,E/S/E,F/D,M/A/E
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 132-134° F      Plant Part: Fruit Peel
 Specific Gravity: 0.850 - 0.890Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Soft Citrusy Scent
Approaches: 
Bath  Compress  Diffuser  Facial  Sauna  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Glaucoma(Avoid-if-have-Glaucoma)     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Phototoxic(mild)     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-First-Trimester)
Health Uses: 
Acne   Body Odor   Boils   Bronchitis   Candida   Chicken Pox   Cold Sores   Coughs   Cystitis   Dementia   Eczema   Fever   Gallstones   Gonorrhea   Herpes   Infections   Insect Bites   Insomnia   Intestinal Parasites   Respiratory Infections   Respiratory Tract Infections   Scabies   Sore Throats   Thrush   Tonsillitis   Tuberculosis   Ulcers   Urethritis   Urinary Tract Infections   Uterine Tumors   Varicose Veins   Wounds  
Emotional States: 
Anxiety   Depression   Irritation (Mental)   Stress (Emotional)   Stress (Mental)   Stress (Physical)
Properties: 
Analgesic   Anti-biotic   Anti-depressant   Anti-infectious   Anti-inflammatory   Anti-parasitic   Anti-septic-general   Anti-spasmodic   Deodorant   Diuretic   Expectorant   Febrifuge   Fixative   Sedative   Stimulant-digestive   Vermifuge   Vulnerary  
Oil Constituents
Bergapten  Citral (0.3%)   Coumarines  Limonene  Linalool  Linalyl acetate 
Deters These Pests: 
Cats

Abstract: 
Bergamot has a naturally occuring chemical called bergapten. This is a phototoxic agent that produces abnormally dark pigmentation and reddening of the surrounding skin after exposure to UV rays. Bergamot FCF is an essential oil that has the bergapten removed so it is no longer phototoxic.

Addendum(s)
 Common Name Etymology
Bergamot was said to be first distilled in the city of Bergamo, Italy.

Note
Bergamot is said to be one of the only citrus oils that does not have Limonene as a dominant constituent.

Open Source PDF Documents for Bergamot
 
1. Antibacterial Activity of Thyme Essential Oil Alone and with Other Oils
2. Antifungal Activity and Chemical Composition of Twenty Essential Oils Against Fungi
3. Aroma-Herbalism for Women
4. Aromatherapy and Chicken Pox
5. Aromatherapy and Nursing: Historical and Theoretical Conception
6. Aromatherapy in Pregnancy (Lynne Jones)
7. Aromatherapy in Pregnancy (Vicki Hobbs)
8. Aromatherapy in the Management of Psychiatric Disorders
9. Aromatherapy Post Partum - "Not Forgetting Mum!"
10. Case History of Infected Eczema Treated with Essential Oils
 
11. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Ten Plants
12. Essential Oil Interventions for Premenstrual Syndrome and the Menopause
13. Essential Oils with Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Cytotoxic Properties
14. Evaluation of Aromatherapy in Institutional Elder Care Settings
15. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of a Sizable Set of Essential Oils
16. High Quality Bergamot Oil from Greece: Chemical Analysis
17. Katybugs Chakra Essential Oil Kit
18. Study on Essential Oils from Four Species of Zhishi with GC-MS
19. The Role of Essential Oils in the Treatment and Management of ADHD
20. Versatile Psychophysiological Potencies of Essential Oils


 
Bergamot (Wild) -- Monardia fistulosa  --- Please see Monarda
 


 
Bergamot FCF -- Citrus aurantium   aka:  Citrus bergamia  --- Please see Bergamot     Latin AliasOleum Bergamii     
 Note: Bergamot has a naturally occuring chemical called Bergapten(e). Bergapten is a photosensitizing furocoumarin. This phototoxic agent produces abnormally dark pigmentation and reddening of the surrounding skin after exposure to UV rays. Bergamot FCF is an essential oil that has the Bergapten removed so it is no longer phototoxic. Otherwise, characteristics of Bergamot and Bergamot FCF are basically the same, however, the scent and therapeutic properties of the FCF version are usually somewhat dimished (The Chemistry of Essential Oils Made Simple: God's Love Manifest in Molecules  pg 383).

FCF stands for Furo-Coumarin Free.

 


 
Bergamot Mint -- Mentha citrata   aka:  Mentha odorata
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Lamiales, Family: Lamiaceae, Genus: Mentha L.   Specie: Mentha citrata  L.
Etymology:  Mentha - Minthe, daughter of Cocyton         citrata - resembling Citrus
 From: Europe 
 Recommended Dilution: Low Note: Top Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Perennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge Polarity     Element Plant Height: 1 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: Indefinite Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Leaves/Flowers
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Soft Minty Scent
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Properties: 
Anti-microbial  
Oil Constituents
Linalool (33%-46%)   Linalyl acetate (19%-37%)  

Open Source PDF Documents for Bergamot Mint
 
1. Chemical Profiling of Menta spicata and Mentha citrata
2. Essential Oil Composition of Sixteen Elite Cultivars of Mentha
 
3. Phytochemical Constituents, Anticancer Activity of M. citrata, M. longifolia


 
Birch (Sweet) -- Betula lenta Latin AliasOleum Betulae
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Fagales, Family: Betulaceae, Genus: Betula L.   Specie: Betula lenta  L.
Etymology:  Betula - From "betu", Celtic for "birch"         lenta - Tough and flexible
 From: Canada  Germany  Holland  Russia  USA 
 Recommended Dilution: High Note: Top Astral Bodies: Jupiter  Sun  Venus   Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity: Yin     Element: Water Plant Height: 15-20 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: Indefinite Magical Powers:  Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 124-126° F     Protection  Purification   Plant Part: Bark
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Light Spicy Scent
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Always-Dilute     Keep-Away-From-Children     Lactation(Avoid-During-Lactation)     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)     Use-Sparingly
Health Uses: 
Boils   Diarrhea  
Properties: 
Analgesic   Anti-inflammatory   Anti-rheumatic   Astringent   Cleanser  
Oil Constituents
Methyl salicylate 

Abstract: 
It is commonly said that essentially all "Birch oil" (both "Sweet Birch" &  "White Birch") and "Wintergreen oil" on the consumer market is in fact synthetic methyl salicylate. Methyl salicylate has been repeatedly shown to cause poisoning and dermal eruptions. Applied to the skin methyl salicylate enters the body extremely quickly and has even been detected in urine only 30 minutes after topical application in lab experiments. People with aspirin, heparin, ticlopidine, or warfarin (Coumadin) in their system who are exposed to methyl salicylate risk internal hemorrhage. -- (Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals)

Other sources such as those associated with Gary Young suggest that Birch and Wintergreen oil play an important part in aromatherapy and are likely referring to the genuine, authentic oils, not synthetics.

At this time it is difficult (for me) to tell whether or not Birch and Wintergreen oils should be used in aromatherapy. Regardless of the side you choose keep in mind the following ideas:
 1. Pharmaceutical companies or other chemical companies are the ones responsible for the creation of synthetic Birch and Wintergreen oil.
 2. Pharmaceutical companies or other chemical companies are the ones responsible for creating aspirin, heparin, ticlopidine, and warfarin (Coumadin).
 3. Pharmaceutical companies or other chemical companies are the ones responsible for creating fear about using Birch and Wintergreen oils. Of course this fear is reasonable if we are talking about synthetic Birch and Wintergreen oils.

For folks with access to a chemistry lab, I did discover a way to determine the difference between natural methyl salicylate (aka Gaultherylen) and synthetic methyl salicylate on page three of the American Druggist and Pharmaceutical Record Vol 33 Number 1 from July 11, 1898. (American Druggist and Pharmaceutical Record - Vol 33 - Number 1 pg. 3)

Addendum(s)
 Caution
Most bottles of "Birch" oil on the market are commonly 100% synthetic - mostly methyl salicylate. Because of this, Birch oil is not recommended for most aromatherapy applications.


 
Birch (White) -- Betula alba  --- Please see Birch (Sweet)
 Note: The essential oil that is steam distilled from White Birch bark is similar to the essential oil distilled from Sweet Birch bark. For the essential oil characteristics of White Birch please see the details for Sweet Birch. White Birch is also used to make Birch Tar oil. For the characteristics concerning Birch Tar oil, please see below.
 


 
Birch Tar -- Betula alba
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Fagales, Family: Betulaceae, Genus: Betula L.   Specie: Betula alba  L.
Etymology:  Betula - From "betu", Celtic for "birch"         alba - White
 From: Russia 
 Recommended Dilution: High Note: Base Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 15-20 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: Indefinite Magical Powers: None Extraction: Kiln
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Wood
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Always-Dilute     Keep-Away-From-Children     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)     Use-Sparingly     Use-With-Extreme-Caution
Health Uses: 
Dry Skin   Eczema   Oily Skin  


 
Bitter Almond -- Prunus amygdalus   aka:  Amygdalus communis-amara    ---      Extracted oil from this plant is not used in aromatherapy.  

 This oil was sometimes used in the past and has the Latin alias of Oleum Amygdalae Amarae

French Name: Amandes Amères  German Name: Bittere Mandeln  

Bitter Almond is well known for its "Poisonous Effects". These have been carefully documented throughout history. Even Dioscorides and Mattioli have performed "clinical" studies with it - though I'm not sure that they were entirely aware of its toxicity. The following is a quote from John Stephenson:

"It will be seen, from the following interesting details, that the bitter almond, given in substance, is exceedingly poisonous, and the distilled water causes an action resembling that of (cherry) laurel water, producing vertigo, headache, dimness of sight, vomiting, and occasionally epilepsy." (Medical Botany of Poisonous Vegetables  pdf pg 332)

He goes on to explain his own experience by dipping a tiny amount of Bitter Almond essential oil onto his own tongue!

Bitter Almond contains amygdalin, a so-called cyanogenic glycoside which converts to hydrogen cyanide (deadly) upon distillation. src: (Bo Jensen's Website) , (Menopause: Essential Oils Vs. Traditional Allopathic Medicine  pdf page 71)

 
However, its possible that Bitter Almond oil may be produced which does not contain cyanide. Whether or not trace amounts of cyanide still remain I do not know but the following is an excerpt taken from a book from 1922:

" This (oil) is made from bitter almonds, previously deprived of fatty oil by pressure, which are mixed with an equal weight of water and set in a warm place. The amygdalin undergoes decomposition into sugar, hydrogen cyanide, and benzoyl hydride or oil of bitter almonds. After one or two days the mass is distilled; the distillate being a colorless liquid, containing, besides oil of bitter almonds, hydrogen cyanide or prussic acid, one of the most virulent poisons, from which it must be freed. This is done by shaking the liquid repeatedly with dilute solution of potassa, followed by agitation with water. Pure oil of bitter almonds is not poisonous, but has a very strong narcotic odor of bitter almonds, which, however, becomes most marked when largely diluted with water." (Perfumes and Cosmetics their Preparation and Manufacture 5th Ed.  pg. 74)

A list of other oils which should not be used in aromatherapy can be viewed here -- Unused Essential Oils In Aromatherapy
 


 
Black Cumin -- Nigella sativa  --- Please see Black Cumin
 Note: Black Cumin is sometimes referred to as an essential oil but the size and type of its molecules more closely classify it as a carrier oil. Black Cumin oil is sometimes referred to as Roman Coriander, Nutmeg Flower, Black Caraway, Fennel Flower, or Blackseed.
 

Deters These Pests: 
Mosquitoes

 
Black Pepper -- Piper nigrum Latin AliasOleum Piperis
French NameEssence de Poivre  German NamePfefferöl  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Piperales, Family: Piperaceae, Genus: Piper L.   Specie: Piper nigrum  L.
Etymology:  Piper - Pepper         nigrum - Dark or black
From: Brazil  China  India  Indonesia  Southeast Asia  Thailand 
 Recommended Dilution: High Note: Middle Astral Bodies: Mars   Plant Catagory: Vine
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity: Yang     Element: Fire Plant Height: 1-15 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: Indefinite Magical Powers: Power   Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 138-140° F      Plant Part: Fruit
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Deep Spicy Scent
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Always-Dilute     Keep-Away-From-Children     Kidney-Irritant-with-Overuse     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)     Skin-Irritant(high)
Health Uses: 
Arthritis (Rheumatoid)   Cholera   Colds   Colic   Constipation   Coughs   Diarrhea   Dysentery   Dyspepsia   Fever   Flatulence   Heartburn   Nausea   Sprains   Toothaches   Viruses   Vomiting  
Emotional States: 
Lethargy
Properties: 
Analgesic   Anti-bacterial   Anti-catarrh   Anti-fungal   Anti-microbial   Anti-septic-general   Aphrodisiac   Expectorant   Rubefacient  
Oil Constituents
δ-3-Carene (10%-22%)
β-Caryophyllene (7.3%-33%)
α-Copanene (2.3%-2.7%)
Limonene (15.3%-19%)
β-Myrcene (2%-2.1%)
α-Phellandrene (2%-2.1%)
α-Pinene (4%-10.5%)
β-Pinene (8%-9%)
Piperine
α-Terpinene (13.4%-15%)
Deters These Pests: 
Cockroaches   Mosquitoes

Open Source PDF Documents for Black Pepper
 
1. A Review on Antidermatophytic Efficiency of Plant Essential Oils
2. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils against Fluconazole Resistant Fungi
3. Antimicrobial Agents from Plants: Antibacterial Activity of Plant Oils
4. Antimicrobial Agents from Plants: Antibacterial Activity of Plant Volatile Oils
5. Aroma Compound Analysis of Piper nigrum and Piper guineense
6. Essential Oils and Hypertension
7. Essential Oils for Complementary Treatment of Surgical Patients: State of the Art
 
8. Mosquito Repellents in Thailand
9. Neuropathies: Essential Oils Show Promising Results in the Fight Against Symptoms
10. Plant Oils to Combat Mosquitoes
11. Potent Protection
12. Repellent Activity of Essential Oils Against Cockroaches in Thailand
13. Use of Essential Oils for the Management of Different Species of Dengue Mosquitoe


 
Blue Tansy -- Tanacetum anuum
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Asterales, Family: Asteraceae, Genus: Tanacetum L.   Specie: Tanacetum anuum  L.
Etymology:  Tanacetum - Greek athanasia - an immortality drink for Ganymede         anuum - Annual
 From: Morocco  Spain  USA 
 Recommended Dilution: High Note: Middle Astral Bodies: Venus   Plant Catagory: Perennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity: Yin     Element: Water Plant Height: 20-50 cm
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: Indefinite Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Flowering Tops
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Always-Dilute     Epilepsy(Avoid-if-you-have-epilepsy)     Keep-Away-From-Children     Lactation(Avoid-During-Lactation)     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)     Use-With-Extreme-Caution
Health Uses: 
Asthma   Hay Fever   Radiation Burns  
Properties: 
Anti-bacterial   Anti-infectious   Anti-inflammatory  
Oil Constituents
Camphene  Chamazulene  Linalol  α-Thujone  β-Thujone  α-Thyene 
Deters These Pests: 
Fleas   Flies (black)   Flies (carrot)   Flies (common)   Flies (green)   Flies (horse)   Flies (white)   Mosquitoes

Abstract: 
Blue Tansy essential oil is distilled from Tanacetum anuum, NOT Tanacetum vulgare, aka "Common Tansy". Oil from Tanacetum vulgare has a high Thujone content, typically between 60% and 80%, making it toxic and potentially harmful to your health. Some sources say that oil from Tanacetum vulgare can cause irregular heartbeat, rigid pupils, uterine bleeding, hepatitis, rapid breathing, convulsions, and loss of consciousness.

Oil extracted from Tanacetum anuum is known by different names, however, I have it listed on this site as Blue Tansy. Oil from Tanacetum vulgare is different in chemical makeup from Tanacetum anuum. Oil from Tanacetum vulgare typically has between a 60% and 80% Thujone content making it toxic.

There is a lot of confusion regarding Tansy oil and Blue Tansy oil. There are several reasons for this confusion. The plethera of names for these two oils is mostly the cause of this.

Anyone wishing to use Blue Tansy, perhaps to treat radiation burns, should be very sure about their supplier. I suggest talking to the merchant and learning as much as possible before purchasing and trying their product.

European folklore suggests that the herb, not the oil, has been used to expel worms, treat fevers, and prevent miscarriages.

Open Source PDF Documents for Blue Tansy
 
1. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Essential Oils
 
2. Blue Tansy - Natural Seasonal Allergy Relief


 
Bois de Rose -- Aniba rosaeodora  --- Please see Rosewood     Latin AliasOleum Aniba Rosaeodora     
 


 
Boldo -- Peumus boldus   aka:  Boldu boldus , Boldoa fragrans    ---
      Extracted oil from this plant is not used in aromatherapy.  

 Boldo oil is extracted from the leaves of the Boldo tree and it is very potent; even exposure in only small amounts can cause convulsions. Boldo oil has a toxic constituent called "ascaridole" which makes it harmful to humans. The dried leaves are sometimes used in herbalogy to treat gallstones, rheumatism, and cystitis. The oil, however, is way too concentrated to be useful. It should never be used in aromatherapy.

A list of other oils which should not be used in aromatherapy can be viewed here -- Unused Essential Oils In Aromatherapy
 


 
Boronia -- Boronia megastigma    ---      Extracted oil from this plant is not used in aromatherapy.  

 This oil is used in the fragrance and flavor industries. Information about it's health benefits seems to be controversial. The following are some documents that I have found while researching this oil:

Boronia
Emission of Volatiles from Brown Boronia Flowers: Some Comparative Observations
Flower and Volatile Oil Ontogeny in Boronia megastigma
Intraspection Variation in Oil Components of Boronia megastigma Nees. Flowers
The Effect of Flower Maturity and Harvest Timing on Floral Extract from Boronia megastigma

For now I am leaving this oil in the "Unused" list until I decide otherwise...

A list of other oils which should not be used in aromatherapy can be viewed here -- Unused Essential Oils In Aromatherapy
 


 
Buchu -- Agothosma betulina   aka:  Barosma betulina , Barosma crenulata    ---
      Extracted oil from this plant is not used in aromatherapy.  

 
German Name: Bukublätter  

Buchu oil is obtained from an evergreen shrub which is native to South Africa. It is often used for pharmaceutical purposes. Oil obtained from this plant is sometimes recognized as having medicinal value from its camphor-type components though it is not recommended for use in aromatherapy.

To quote Fluckiger:
"Buchu is principally administered in disorders of the urino-genital organs. It is reputed diuretic and diaphoretic. In the Cape Colony (South Africa) the leaves are much employed as a popular stimulant and stomachic, infused in water, sherry or brandy. They are also extensively used in the United States, both in regular medicine and by the vendors of secret remedies." (Pharmacographia pdf pg 129)

There seems to be a fair amount written about the use of Buchu in medicine, however, most that I have read is more in regards to its use in herbalogy rather than in aromatherapy (essential oil use). I suspect that highly concentrated Buchu essence such as that found in the oil is detrimental to health, though at present I cannot confirm this with any evidence. However, I have read that oil obtained from Barosma crenulata has a high Pulegone content.

A list of other oils which should not be used in aromatherapy can be viewed here -- Unused Essential Oils In Aromatherapy
 

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  Reference SourcesLast Update ☆ ~~ Mar 1, 2017   Home

  ~  The Recommended Fine Print  ~
All information, suggestions, and opinions shown on this website are for educational purposes only and do not replace
medical advice nor are they intended to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent any disease or health problems.
I am NOT a doctor and never, ever want to be one!         I am not responsible for any of your health choices!
Information given here has not been evaluated by the US FDA nor by any other U.S. governing body to the
best of my knowledge nor does it replace the advice of any licensed health-care professional.
Your health is your responsibility!!   Peace out.   ~ Jonn ☆ ~~