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  Kaffir Lime
Kanuka
Khella
Kunzea
Labdanum
Lantana Leaf
Laurel
Lavandin
Lavender (Cotton)
Lavender (Dutch)
Lavender (English)
 Lavender (French)
Lavender (Indian)
Lavender (Spanish)
Lavender (Spike)
Lavender (True)
Lemon
Lemon Balm
Lemon Verbena
Lemongrass
Lime
Linaloe Berry
 Litsea Cubeba
Lotus
Mace
Malabathrum
Mandarin (Green)
Mandarin (Red)
Mandravasarotra
Manuka
Manuka (Lemon)
Marigold
Marigold (African)
 Marjoram (Sweet)
Mastic
May Chang
Melissa
Mimosa
MQV
Mugwort
Musk Seed
Mustard
Myrrh
Myrrh (East Indian)
 Myrrh (Indian)
Myrtle
Myrtle (Anise)
Myrtle (Lemon)
Narcissus
Neroli (Bigarade)
Neroli (Portugal)
Neroli Absolute
Niaouli
Nutmeg
Nutmeg Flower
 

  Oils A-B      Oils C-E      Oils F-J      Oils K-N      Oils O-R      Oils S-Z  

 
Kaffir Lime -- Citrus hystrix  --- Please see Petitgrain Combarva
 


 
Kanuka -- Leptospermum ericoides   aka:  Kunzea ericoides
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Myrtales, Family: Myrtaceae, Genus: Leptospermum L.   Specie: Leptospermum ericoides  L.
From: New Zealand 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Middle Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 3-4 m
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Leaves
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Health Uses: 
Urinary Tract Infections  

Open Source PDF Document for Kanuka: 
1. A Fresh Look at Manuka and Kanuka Essential Oils from New Zealand


 
Khella -- Ammi visnaga
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Apiales, Family: Apiaceae, Genus: Ammi L.   Specie: Ammi visnaga  L.
Etymology:  Ammi - Greek word - Ammos - meaning sand         visnaga - Toothpick
 From: Africa  Australia  Egypt  Iran  Mediteranean  S. America  Turkey 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Middle Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Annual
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 1 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Seeds
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Phototoxic(high)     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-First-Trimester)
Health Uses: 
Asthma   Bronchitis   Colds   Indigestion   Menstration (Irregular)  
Properties: 
Anti-spasmodic   Diuretic  

Abstract: 
Dioscorides coined the term Ammi from the Greek word ammos (sand) in reference to the plant's sandy habitat. Khella is the Arabic name commonly used in the Middle East and Europe.


 
Kunzea -- Kunzea ambigua
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Myrtales, Family: Myrtaceae, Genus: Kunzea Rchb.   Specie: Kunzea ambigua  (Sm.) Druce
From: Tasmania 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Middle Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 3m
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life:  Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Leaves/Twigs
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Health Uses: 
Arthritis (Osteo)   Insect Bites   Muscle Aches   Rheumatism  
Properties: 
Analgesic   Anti-inflammatory  
Oil Constituents
1,8 Cineole  Globulol  α-Pinene (52%)   Viridiflorol 

Open Source PDF Document for Kunzea: 
1. The Essential Oil of Kunzea


 
Labdanum -- Cistus ladanifer   aka:  Cistus ladaniferus  --- Please see Rock Rose
 


 
Lantana Leaf -- Lantana camara
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Lamiales, Family: Verbenaceae, Genus: Lantana L.   Specie: Lantana camara  L.
From: Madagascar 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Top Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Shrub
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 50cm
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Leaves
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)
Properties: 
Anti-microbial   Anti-septic-general   Anti-viral  

Open Source PDF Documents for Lantana Leaf
 
1. A Review on Antidermatophytic Efficiency of Plant Essential Oils
2. A Study of Lantana camara Aromatic Oil as an Antibacterial Agent
3. Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Essential Oil of Lantan camara
4. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil of Lantana camara
 
5. Chemical Composition of Oils of Jambul, Cypress and Lantana
6. Composition of Lantana camara Leaf Essential Oil
7. Nanoencapsulation of Essential Oils with Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity
8. Plant-based Insect Repellents: A Review of their Efficacy and Testing


 
Laurel -- Laurus nobilis  --- Please see Bay Laurel
 


 
Lavandin -- Lavandula fragrans   aka:  Lavandula delphinensis  --- Please see Lavender (English)
 Note: Oil from this plant is very commonly tampered with by pharmaceutical companies and the like.
Synthetic oils named "Lavandin" abound!    I highly recommend using an alternative oil.
 


 
Lavender (Cotton) -- Santolina chamaecyparissus   aka:  Lavandula taemina  --- Please see Santolina
 


 
Lavender (Dutch) -- Lavandula fragrans  --- Please see Lavandin
 


 
Lavender (English) -- Lavandula officinalis   aka:  Lavandula angustifolia Latin AliasOleum Lavendulae
French NameLavande  German NameLavendel  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Lamiales, Family: Lamiaceae, Genus: Lavandula L.   Specie: Lavandula officinalis  L.
Etymology:  Lavandula - Lavare - to wash, was used in laundry         officinalis - A plant used officially in medicine
From: Bulgaria  England  France  Mediteranean  Tasmania  Turkey  Yugoslovia U.S. Growth Region: 3-4
Recommended Dilution: Any Note: Middle Astral Bodies: Jupiter  Mercury  Sun   Plant Catagory: Shrub
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity: Yang     Element: Air Plant Height: 1 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 5 yrs Magical Powers: Purification   Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe (Diluted) Oil Flash Point: 130-132° F      Plant Part: Flowers
 Specific Gravity: 0.870 - 0.940Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image Warm or Sweet Floral Scent
Approaches: 
Bath  Chest Rub  Compress  Diffuser  Douche  Enema  Facial  Foot Bath  Room Spray  Sauna  Suppository  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Phototoxic(mild)     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-First-Trimester)
Health Uses: 
Acne   Arthritis (Rheumatoid)   Asthma   Bee Stings   Bleeding Gums   Boils   Bronchitis   Bruises   Burns   Candida   Cold Sores   Colic   Cuts   Dandruff   Dementia   Earaches   Eczema   Flatulence   Frostbite   Gallstones   Hair Loss   Hay Fever   Headaches   Heatstroke   Herpes   High Blood Pressure   Hives   Hot Flashes   Indigestion   Infections   Insect Bites   Insomnia   Jellyfish Sting   Laryngitis   Lice   Lymphatic Drainage   Menopause   Menstration (PMS)   Menstration (Scanty)   Migraines   Mosquito Bites   Muscle Soreness   Nausea   Rheumatism   Scabies   Scars   Scrapes   Snake Bite   Spider Bites   Spider Bites - Black Widow   Sprains   Stretch Marks   Sunburns   Sunstroke   Thrush   Tuberculosis   Typhoid Fever   Vomiting   Wasp Sting   Water Retention   Whooping Cough   Wounds  
Emotional States: 
Anxiety   Depression   Happiness   Irritation (Mental)   Stress (Chemical)   Stress (Mental)   Stress (Physical)
Properties: 
Analgesic   Anti-bacterial   Anti-biotic   Anti-depressant   Anti-fungal   Anti-infectious   Anti-inflammatory   Anti-microbial   Anti-parasitic   Anti-rheumatic   Anti-septic-general   Anti-viral   Calmative   Decongestant   Nervine   Sedative   Vulnerary  
Oil Constituents
α-Bisabolol (0%-0.2%)
Borneol (0.7%-2.6%)
Camphor (0.2%-3.3%)
β-Caryophyllene (1.9%-2.8%)
1,8 Cineole (1.2%-3.7%)
Coumarines
β-Farnesene (0%-1.7%)
Lavandulyl acetate (1.9%-3.1%)
Limonene (0.3%-0.8%)
Linalol (27%-37.1%)
Linalool
Linalool acetate (35.2%-39.6%)
Linalyl acetate (35.4%-48%)
β-Myrcene (0.5%-0.7%)
Octanone (1.3%-1.8%)
β-Phellandrene (0%-0.2%)
α-Pinene (0%-0.5%)
Terpinen-4-ol (0.4%-3.7%)
Deters These Pests: 
Beetle (flea)   Fleas   Flies (black)   Flies (common)   Flies (green)   Flies (horse)   Flies (white)   Lice   Mosquitoes   Moths

Abstract: 
Currently there are over 50 common varieties of lavender being cultivated worldwide, Lavandula angustifolia being only one of them. Keep in mind that only a handful of them produce essential oils for use in aromatherapy. An excellent resourse for further research into the various species and sub-species is The Genus Lavandula by Tim Upson & Susyn Andrews.

Generally speaking, it takes about 30 pounds of Lavender flowers and stems to produce 1 pound of lavender oil.

Occationally a Lavender supplier will advertise or otherwise mention that their particular Lavender oil has a "high ester content", "40% ester content", "50% ester content", "boosted ester content", etc. Personally, I would view such advertising to be a bit of a red flag - meaning I would be concerned that the oil had been adulterated or somehow altered from its original authentic state. Often extracts from Lavandin are used to "boost" the ester content of otherwise authentic Lavender oil. Obviously "boosting" an authentic oil is going to disturb its natural balance and may not yield a desirable result. Drawing from David Stewart's chocolate cake example (The Chemistry of Essential Oils Made Simple, pg 312) - if we were to "boost" the amount of salt in the chocolate cake recipe, the cake may end up tasting a bit salty...

If the Lavender oil does have a naturally occuring high ester content then that will likely be reflected in a higher price and a "higher quality" - meaning the oil will be less camphorous and more soothing in nature.

Some of the highest quality Lavender oils are said to come from the species of Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula vera which have both been cultivated in England and France --- Lavandula angustifolia most commonly found in England; hence the name English Lavender and Lavandula vera more commonly found in France; hence the name French Lavender

Addendum(s)
 Plant Growing Tips
Sow the seeds outside in late spring (after frost has past), 18 inches apart in alkaline soil with full sun. Plants grow best in dry, sandy or rocky soils that drain well. Harvest flowers for teas, cooking, potpourri, or essential oil distillation.

Open Source PDF Documents for Lavender (English)
 
1. A Brief on the Use of Essential Oils with Traditional Chinese Medicine
2. A Comparative Study of Lavender Essential Oil and Clotrimazole: An In Vitro Study
3. A Controlled Trial of Aromatherapy for Nursing Home Patients with Dementia
4. A Novel Method to Estimate the Contribution of the Vapor Activity of Essential Oils
5. A Review on Antidermatophytic Efficiency of Plant Essential Oils
6. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils Against Respiratory Tract Pathogens
7. Antidermatophytic Activity of Essential Oils
8. Antifungal Activity and Chemical Composition of Twenty Essential Oils Against Fungi
9. Antifungal activity of Plant Oils against Oral Clinical Isolates of Candida
10. Antifungal Investigations on Plant Essential Oils. A Review
11. Antimicrobial and Antiviral Effects of Essential Oils from Apiaceae and Lamiaceae
12. Antimicrobial and Synergistic Effects of some Essential Oils to Fight Pathogens
13. Antioxidant Attributes of Four Lamiaceae Essential Oils
14. Antioxidant Property of Volatile Oils Determined by the Ferric Reducing Ability
15. Antioxidant, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Lavender Essential Oil
16. Antique Lavender Essential Oil from 1945, its Chemical Composition
17. Aromatherapy as an Adjunct for the Management and Treatment of Pain
18. Aromatherapy in Dementia
19. Aromatherapy in Pregnancy
20. Aromatherapy in the Management of Psychiatric Disorders
21. Aromatherapy in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders
22. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Women
23. Aromatherapy: Evidence for Sedative Effects of the Essential Oil of Lavender
24. Behavior Management of Dementia Patients
25. Biological Activities of Lavender Essential Oil
26. Blessed by Essential Oils - Simple Guidelines and Uses of Essential Oils
27. Case History of Infected Eczema Treated with Essential Oils
28. Characterisation of Lavender Essential Oils by GC-MS
29. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Ten Plants
30. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils of Lavender
31. Chemical Constituents of the Flower Essential Oil of Lavandula officinalis
32. Chemotypes Investigation of Lavandula Essential Oils Growing in North African Soils
33. Clinical Phytotherapy for Women's Health
34. Comparative GC-MS Analysis of Lavender Inflorescence and Essential Oil Volatiles
35. Comparing Essential Oil Composition and Yield of Rosemary and Lavender
36. Complementary Therapies and Dementia
37. Composition, Biological Properties and Therapeutic Effects of Lavender
38. Distillation Time Effect of Lavender Essential Oil Yield and Composition
39. Effect of Aromatherapy Massage on Agitation and Mood in Individuals With Dementia
40. Effect of Lavender Aromatherapy on Menopause Hot Flushing
 
41. Effects of Inhalation of Lavender Essential Oil on Open-heart Surgery Pain
42. Efficacy of Aroma Therapy for Dementia
43. Essential Oil Composition of Lavandula angustifolia From Iraq
44. Essential Oil Constituents of Lavandula officinalis from Iran
45. Essential Oils as Therapeutics
46. Essential Oils with Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Cytotoxic Properties
47. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of a Sizable Set of Essential Oils
48. Evidence-Based Aromatherapy: Stress Relief and Much More
49. Headspace Gas Chromatographic Analysis of Bulgarian Lavandula angustifolia
50. Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage
51. Improvement of Sleep and Circadian Rhythm Disturbance by Aromatherapy Massage
52. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Some Plant Essential Oils
53. Incorporating Essential Oils into Clinical Dentistry
54. Influence of Distillation Time on Lavender
55. Introduction to Commercial Lavender Production - Processing and Distillation
56. Lavender (Lavandula spp.)
57. Lavender and the Nervous System
58. Lavender Essential Oil: A Review
59. Lavender Oil Characterization
60. Lavender Production
61. Lavender Production, Products, Markets, and Entertainment Farms
62. Monoterpene Production and Regulation in Lavenders
63. Olivia's Essential Oils Guide for Dummies
64. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Activities of Lavandula officinalis Leaves
65. Potent Protection
66. Quantitative Analysis of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) Essential Oil
67. Repellent Activities of Essential Oils and Monoterpenes Against Mosquitoes
68. Sensory Stimulation in Dementia
69. Sensory Stimulation in the Treatment of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Dementia
70. Synergistic Interactions of Lavender Essential Oil
71. The Biological Activities of Cinnamon, Geranium and Lavender Essential Oils
72. The Effect of Inhalation of Lavender Essential Oil on Cesarean Postoperative Pain
73. The Effect of Stimulating and Soothing Smells on Heart Rate and Memory
74. The Effectiveness of Aromatherapy w/ Lavender Essential Oil: Post Arthroscopy Pain
75. The Healing Power of Lavender
76. The Journal of Quality Research in Dementia
77. The Longwood Herbal Task Force - Lavender
78. The Role of Essential Oils in the Treatment and Management of ADHD
79. Yielding and Quality of Lavender Flowers from Organic Cultivation


 
Lavender (French) -- Lavandula vera  --- Please see Lavender (English)
 Note: The species Lavandula vera is known to grow in several different countries, France and England being two of them. However, history has shown that this species of Lavender yields an especially pleasing essential oil when grown in the south of France. Some would argue that a high quality French Lavender oil is the best in the world! For this reason I have labeled this particular species French Lavender. Depending on the climate / country essential oil extracted from this species varies in Linalyl acetate content from about 7% in parts of England to 35% in France. (The Chemistry of Essential Oils and Artificial Perfumes - Vol II  pdf pg. 19)

Occationally a Lavender supplier will advertise or otherwise mention that their particular Lavender oil has a "high ester content", "40% ester content", "50% ester content", "boosted ester content", etc. Personally, I would view such advertising to be a bit of a red flag - meaning I would be concerned that the oil had been adulterated or somehow altered from its original authentic state. Often extracts from Lavandin are used to "boost" the ester content of otherwise authentic Lavender oil. Obviously "boosting" an authentic oil is going to disturb its natural balance and may not yield a desirable result. Drawing from David Stewart's chocolate cake example (The Chemistry of Essential Oils Made Simple, pg 312) - if we were to "boost" the amount of salt in the chocolate cake recipe, the cake may end up tasting a bit salty...

If the Lavender oil does have a naturally occuring high ester content then that will likely be reflected in a higher price and a "higher quality" - meaning the oil will be less camphorous and more soothing in nature.

If you can find an authentic genuine French Lavender oil the higher price will certainly be worth it. For health uses, properties, etc. please see the data for English Lavender.

 


 
Lavender (Indian) -- Bursera delpechiana  --- Please see Linaloe Berry
 


 
Lavender (Spanish) -- Lavandula stoechas
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Lamiales, Family: Lamiaceae, Genus: Lavandula L.   Specie: Lavandula stoechas  L.
From: France  Mediteranean  Morocco  Portugal  Spain  Turkey U.S. Growth Region: 4
 Recommended Dilution: Low Note: Middle Astral Bodies: Jupiter  Mercury  Sun   Plant Catagory: Shrub
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity: Yang     Element: Air Plant Height: 1 m
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 5 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 128-130° F      Plant Part: Flowers
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption

Abstract: 
Spanish Lavender Oil, distilled in Spain and sold largely to England as Lavender oil, is not a genuine Lavender oil at all, but an oil practically free from esters, having the general character of Spike Lavender oil. The production of this oil now reaches about 40,000 kilos per annum. Adulteration of Lavender Oil. French oils containing less than 30 per cent of esters are very often mixed with Spike or Bastard Lavender oils. Formerly adulteration used to be with oil of Turpentine, often mixed with coco-nut oil, but this has given place to various artificial esters prepared chemically, which are practically odourless and only added to make the oil appear to have a higher ester percentage than it really has. Recently, crude mixtures of Lavender oil with Petitgrain oil have been noticed on the market. http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/l/lavend13.html#desspi ---- found: 20090215

Open Source PDF Documents for Lavender (Spanish)
 
1. Aromatherapy in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders
2. Biological Activities of Lavender Essential Oil
3. Essential Oils with Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Cytotoxic Properties
 
4. Lavender Essential Oil: A Review
5. The Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil of Lavandula stoechas


 
Lavender (Spike) -- Lavandula latifolia   aka:  Lavandula spica
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Lamiales, Family: Lamiaceae, Genus: Lavandula L.   Specie: Lavandula latifolia  Medikus
Etymology:  Lavandula - Lavare - to wash, was used in laundry         latifolia - Leaves on the side
 From: Portugal  Spain U.S. Growth Region: 4
 Recommended Dilution: Low Note: Middle Astral Bodies: Jupiter  Mercury  Sun   Plant Catagory: Shrub
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity: Yang     Element: Air Plant Height: 1 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 5 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 128-130° F      Plant Part: Flowers
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Oil Constituents
Borneol (1%-1.6%)
Camphor (11.2%-13.2%)
β-Caryophyllene (1.2%-1.8%)
1,8 Cineole (23.9%-28.4%)
β-Farnesene (0.4%)
Limonene (1.1%-1.2%)
Linalol (38%-45%)
Linalool acetate (0%)
Linalyl acetate (0.2%-0.6%)
β-Myrcene (0.4%-0.6%)
α-Pinene (1.6%-1.9%)
β-Pinene (1.8%-2.4%)

Abstract: 
The name "Lavandula spica" actually refers to two different species of plants, Lavandula angustifolia AND Lavandula latifolia. Because of this, the name Lavandula spica is rather ambiguous and invalid. However, corporate industries, (big pharma, etc.) often continue to use the name Lavandula spica. Cultivators of Lavander plants are often aware of this. Comsumers at the store or often not so aware. Any product bearing the name Lavandula spica should be viewed with caution.

Spike Lavender is significantly different from English Lavender. One main difference is Camphor content. Camphor can be irritating to the skin. Lavender oil with higher concentrations of Camphor such as those found in Spike Lavender will cause pain when applied to open cuts, open wounds, burns, etc. Because of this, Spike Lavender is generally not as desired for use in aromatherapy. Spike Lavender certainly does have it's place, however, it should not be thought of in the same therapeutic sense as English Lavender. It's been said that Camphor content in some batches of Spike Lavender oil have been as high as 40%.

Currently there are over 50 common varieties of lavender being cultivated worldwide, Lavandula angustifolia being only one of them. Keep in mind that only a handful of them produce essential oils for use in aromatherapy. An excellent resourse for further research into the various species and sub-species is The Genus Lavandula by Tim Upson & Susyn Andrews.

Open Source PDF Documents for Lavender (Spike)
 
1. A Brief on the Use of Essential Oils with Traditional Chinese Medicine
2. A Review on Antidermatophytic Efficiency of Plant Essential Oils
3. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils Against Respiratory Tract Pathogens
4. Biological Activities of Lavender Essential Oil
 
5. Chronic Health Effects Assessment of Spike Lavender Oil
6. Essential Oils with Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Cytotoxic Properties
7. Lavender (Lavandula spp.)
8. Lavender Essential Oil: A Review


 
Lavender (True) -- Lavandula officinalis  --- Please see Lavender (English)
 


 
Lemon -- Citrus limonum   aka:  Citrus limon Latin AliasOleum Limonis
French NameLimon  German NameLimonenfrüchte  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Sapindales, Family: Rutaceae, Genus: Citrus L.   Specie: Citrus limonum  L.
Etymology:  Citrus - Citrus like, from Citron in Judaea         limonum - A bright or flowery surface or meadow, name for lemon
From: Argentina  Brazil  India  Isreal  Portugal  Spain  Turkey  USA 
 Recommended Dilution: Low Note: Top Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 10 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers:  Extraction: C/P,E/S/E,F/D,M/A/E
Oil is Child Safe (Diluted) Oil Flash Point: 113-115° F     Longevity  Purification   Plant Part: Fruit Peel
 Specific Gravity: 0.850 - 0.870Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Warm or Sweet Citrusy Scent
Approaches: 
Bath  Diffuser  Humidifier  Room Spray  Sauna  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Phototoxic(mild)     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)     Skin-Irritant(mild)
Health Uses: 
Anemia   Asthma   Bleeding Gums   Body Odor   Broken Capillaries   Bronchitis   Candida   Cellulite   Colds   Coughs   Fever   Gallstones   Gout   Headaches   Heartburn   Insect Bites   Intestinal Parasites   Lymphatic Drainage   Rheumatism   Scabies   Sore Throats   Sunstroke   Varicose Veins   Whooping Cough   Wrinkled Skin  
Emotional States: 
Anxiety   Depression   Stress (Chemical)
Properties: 
Anti-bacterial   Anti-biotic   Anti-depressant   Anti-fungal   Anti-infectious   Anti-microbial   Anti-rheumatic   Anti-septic-general   Astringent   Deodorant   Disinfectant   Germicide   Stimulant-immune-system   Stimulant-lymph  
Oil Constituents
β-Bisabolene (0.1%-0.8%)
β-Caryophyllene (0%-0.3%)
Citral (1.5%-2.7%)
Coumarines
Geranial (0.9%-1.7%)
Geranyl acetate (0%-0.4%)
Limonene (63.7%-72.8%)
β-Myrcene (1.4%-1.7%)
Neral (0.6%-1%)
Neryl acetate (0.3%-0.5%)
α-Pinene (1.5%-2.1%)
β-Pinene (8.8%-13.3%)
Sabinene (1.7%-2%)
Terpinen-4-ol (0%-0.1%)
α-Terpinene (0%-0.2%)
γ-Terpinene (7%-10.6%)
α-Terpineol (0.1%-0.2%)
Terpinolene (0.2%-0.4%)
Deters These Pests: 
Cats   Fleas   Lice
Other Uses: 
Excellent de-greaser, label glue remover, bathroom cleaning agent, etc.

Abstract: 
Generally thought of as a good binder for other oils so it is useful to add into mixes with other oils which do not mix together well.

Open Source PDF Documents for Lemon
 
1. Anti-Candida Activity of Thyme Lemon and Pennyroyal
2. Antibacterial Activity of Six Essential Oils Against Pathogenic Bacteria
3. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils and their Synergy with Fluconazole
4. Antifungal activity of Plant Oils against Oral Clinical Isolates of Candida
5. Antifungal Investigations on Plant Essential Oils. A Review
6. Antimicrobial and Synergistic Effects of some Essential Oils to Fight Pathogens
7. Antioxidative Action of Citrus limonum Essential Oil on Skin
8. Aromatherapy in Pregnancy
9. Aromatherapy in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders
10. Blessed by Essential Oils - Simple Guidelines and Uses of Essential Oils
11. Case History of Infected Eczema Treated with Essential Oils
12. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Ten Plants
13. Compositional Changes in Commercial Lemon Essential Oil for Aromatherapy
14. Essential Oils and Hypertension
 
15. Essential Oils with Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Cytotoxic Properties
16. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of a Sizable Set of Essential Oils
17. Evidence-Based Aromatherapy: Stress Relief and Much More
18. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Some Plant Essential Oils
19. Multivariate Analysis Discrimination of Lemon Oils
20. Olivia's Essential Oils Guide for Dummies
21. Potent Protection
22. Potential Herbs and its Phytoconstituents Against Fungal Infection
23. Screening of Antibacterial Activity of Six Plant Essential Oils Against Bacteria
24. Study Antimicrobial Activity of Lemon (Citrus lemon L.) Peel Extract
25. Susceptibilities of Candida albicans Mouth Isolates to Antifungal Agents
26. The Cytotoxic Effect of Essential Oil of Lemon Peel on Human Carcinoma Cell Line
27. The Effect of Stimulating and Soothing Smells on Heart Rate and Memory
28. Versatile Psychophysiological Potencies of Essential Oils


 
Lemon Balm -- Melissa officinalis  --- Please see Melissa     Latin AliasOleum Melissa     
 


 
Lemon Verbena -- Aloysia citriodora   aka:  Aloysia triphylla , Lippia citriodora
French NameVerveine  German NameVerbenakraut  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Lamiales, Family: Verbenaceae, Genus: Aloysia L.   Specie: Aloysia citriodora  Palau
Etymology:  Aloysia - Named after Maria Louise, Princess of Parma (?-1819)         citriodora - Smells like lemon
 From: Argentina  Australia  Brazil  Chile  Mediteranean  Paraguay  Peru  Uruguay 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Top Astral Bodies: Mercury   Plant Catagory: Perennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity: Yang     Element: Air Plant Height: 3-5 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: Love   Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Herb
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image 
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Phototoxic(mild)
Health Uses: 
Candida   E. coli   Urinary Tract Infections  
Properties: 
Anti-septic-general  
Oil Constituents
Geranial (22%)   Geraniol (8%)   Limonene (19%)   β-Myrcene (1%)   Nerol (6%)  

Abstract: 
Studies done in Brazil in 2006 suggest that Lemon Verbena essential oil, Citronella (Javan) essential oil, and Palmarosa essential oil are strong inhibitors of Escherichia coli commonly known as E. coli. (Effects of Essential Oils on Escherichia coli)

Open Source PDF Documents for Lemon Verbena
 
1. A Comprehensive Review of Vaginitis Phytotherapy
2. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils: Potential Application in Food
3. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Aloysia triphylla
 
4. Effects of Essential Oils on Escherichia coli
5. Essential Oil Content and Composition of Lippa citriodora


 
Lemongrass -- Cymbopogon citratus   aka:  Cymbopogen flexuosus , Andropogon citrates Latin AliasOleum Siree
French NameSchoenanthe  German NameCitronengrass  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Liliopsida, Order: Cyperales, Family: Poaceae, Genus: Cymbopogon Spreng.   Specie: Cymbopogon citratus  Spreng.
Etymology:  Cymbopogon - Cymba - Latin for boat, pogon - bearded or the shape of bracts         citratus - Smells like citrus
 From: Africa  Brazil  China  India  Sri Lanka 
 Recommended Dilution: High Note: Top Astral Bodies: Mercury   Plant Catagory: Grass
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity: Yang     Element: Air Plant Height: 10-15 cm
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: Lust  Protection   Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 133-135° F      Plant Part: Grass
 Specific Gravity: 0.870 - 0.898Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image Light Fruity Scent
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Always-Dilute     Glaucoma(Avoid-if-have-Glaucoma)     Keep-Away-From-Children     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)     Skin-Irritant(high)     Use-Sparingly
Health Uses: 
Bladder Infection   Edema   Fever   Flatulence   Headaches   Infections   Lymphatic Drainage   Sore Throats   Varicose Veins   Water Retention  
Emotional States: 
Depression
Properties: 
Analgesic   Anti-bacterial   Anti-depressant   Anti-fungal   Anti-inflammatory   Anti-microbial   Anti-septic-general   Insecticidal   Sedative   Vasodilator  
Oil Constituents
Citral (73.8%-75.5%)   Geranial  Geraniol  Limonene  Neral 
Deters These Pests: 
Mosquitoes   Snakes

Addendum(s)
 Caution
"Cymbopogon flexuosus should never be used neat on the skin because of its possible irritant properties, due mainly to the citral content because of its extensive root system. However, when diluted in a carrier, it is without hazard except on the most sensitive of skins. Treat with respect." -- Aromatherapy Workbook - p. 84

Open Source PDF Documents for Lemongrass
 
1. A Novel Method to Estimate the Contribution of the Vapor Activity of Essential Oils
2. A Review on Antidermatophytic Efficiency of Plant Essential Oils
3. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils Against Respiratory Tract Pathogens
4. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils: Potential Application in Food
5. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils Against Respiratory Tract Pathogens
6. Antifungal Investigations on Plant Essential Oils. A Review
7. Antimicrobial Action of Essential Oils: The Effect of DSMO on Cinnamon Oil
8. Antimicrobial Activity of Three Essential Oils from Benin on Five Oral Germs
9. Antimicrobial Effect of Clove and Lemongrass Oils against S. Aureus
10. Chemical Composition of Brazilian Commercial Cymbopogon citratus
11. Essential Oils with Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Cytotoxic Properties
 
12. Evaluation of Anti-Mosquito Properties of Essential Oils
13. Evaluation of Aromatic Plants Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections
14. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of a Sizable Set of Essential Oils
15. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Some Plant Essential Oils
16. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils Against Isolates from HIV Patients
17. Isolation and Identification of Essential Oils from Cymbopogan citratus
18. Lemongrass Distillation in Eastern Bhutan
19. Pharmaceutical and Therapeutic Potentials of Essential Oils
20. Plant-based Insect Repellents: A Review of their Efficacy and Testing
21. Potential Herbs and its Phytoconstituents Against Fungal Infection


 
Lime -- Citrus aurantifolia
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Sapindales, Family: Rutaceae, Genus: Citrus L.   Specie: Citrus aurantifolia  L.
From: Brazil  Italy  Mexico  West Indies 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Top Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 3-5 m
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: Protection   Extraction: C/P,E/S/E,F/D,M/A/E
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 132-134° F      Plant Part: Fruit Peel
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Deep Citrusy Scent
Approaches: 
Sauna  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Glaucoma(Avoid-if-have-Glaucoma)     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Phototoxic(high)     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)
Health Uses: 
Broken Capillaries   Cellulite   Fever   Gallstones   High Blood Pressure   Lymphatic Drainage   Sore Throats  
Properties: 
Anti-bacterial   Anti-biotic   Anti-septic-general   Anti-viral   Healing  
Oil Constituents
Camphene
1,8 Cineole
Citral (4%)
Cymene
Limonene (56%)
Linalol
α-Pinene (2%)
β-Pinene (11%)
Sabinene
γ-Terpinene (14%)
Deters These Pests: 
Cats
Other Uses: 
Excellent de-greaser, label glue remover, bathroom cleaning agent, etc.

Open Source PDF Documents for Lime
 
1. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils
2. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Some Plant Essential Oils
 
3. Volatile Constituents of Citrus aurantifolia Variety Kaghzi Nimbu


 
Linaloe Berry -- Bursera delpechiana   aka:  Bursera penicillata
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Sapindales, Family: Burseraceae, Genus: Bursera L.   Specie: Bursera delpechiana  Poiss. ex Engl.
From: India 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Middle Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 10-15 m
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Berries
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Emotional States: 
Depression
Properties: 
Anti-depressant   Anti-infectious   Anti-inflammatory   Anti-spasmodic   Sedative   Stimulant-immune-system  
Oil Constituents
Geraniol  Limonene  Linalol  Linalyl acetate  Nerol  Neryl acetate 

Open Source PDF Document for Linaloe Berry: 
1. The Mexican Roots of the Indian Lavender Tree


 
Litsea Cubeba -- Litsea cubeba  --- Please see May Chang
 


 
Lotus -- Nelumbo nucifera
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Nymphaeales, Family: Nelumbonaceae, Genus: Nelumbo Adans.   Specie: Nelumbo nucifera  Gaertn.
From: India U.S. Growth Region: None
Recommended Dilution: High Note: Top Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Perennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 20-40 cm
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/E
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Flower Buds
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Always-Dilute     Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Health Uses: 
Arthritis (Rheumatoid)   Athletes Foot   Cholera   Diabetes   Fever   Rashes  


 
Mace -- Myristica fragrans    ---      Extracted oil from this plant is not used in aromatherapy.  

 This oil was sometimes used in the past and has the Latin alias of Oleum Macidis

French Name: Macis  German Name: Muscatblüthe  

Mace oil is prepared via steam distillation of the seed coat of the nutmeg. The oil is generally a yellowish-red color which varies in tint from very dark to almost colorless. In contrast, the oil from the nutmeg itself (Nutmeg oil) is generally colorless or possibly faintly yellow. In the past Mace oil was used extensively for scenting soaps and perfumes and for enhancing the flavor of liqueurs. Mace oil is not recommended for use in aromatherapy.

A list of other oils which should not be used in aromatherapy can be viewed here -- Unused Essential Oils In Aromatherapy
 


 
Malabathrum -- Cinnamomum tamala  --- Please see Tamala
 


 
Mandarin (Green) -- Citrus reticulata
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Sapindales, Family: Rutaceae, Genus: Citrus L.   Specie: Citrus reticulata  L.
Etymology:  Citrus - Citrus like, from Citron in Judaea         reticulata - Made like a net
 From: Argentina  Brazil  China  Italy  Spain  USA 
 Recommended Dilution: Any Note: Top Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity     Element Plant Height: 10-12 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: C/P,F/D
Oil is Child Safe (Diluted) Oil Flash Point: 130-132° F      Plant Part: Fruit Peel
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Sweet Citrusy Scent
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Phototoxic(mild)     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-First-Trimester)
Health Uses: 
Acne   Dyspepsia   Hiccoughs   Insomnia   Obesity   Scars   Stretch Marks  
Properties: 
Anti-fungal   Anti-septic-general   Anti-spasmodic   Sedative   Stimulant-digestive   Stimulant-lymph  
Oil Constituents
Coumarines  Limonene 
Deters These Pests: 
Cats

Open Source PDF Documents for Mandarin (Green)
 
1. Antimicrobial and Synergistic Effects of some Essential Oils to Fight Pathogens
2. Aromatherapy in Pregnancy
3. Essential Oils as Anti-Protozoal Agents
 
4. Influence of volatile constituents of fruit peels of Citrus reticulata
5. The Role of Essential Oils in the Treatment and Management of ADHD
6. Yield and Chemical Composition of Citrus Essential Oils as Affected by Peels


 
Mandarin (Red) -- Citrus reticulata  --- Please see Mandarin (Green)
 Note: It has been debated that Red Mandarin is not good for children.
 


 
Mandravasarotra -- Cinnamosma fragrans  --- Please see Saro
 


 
Manuka -- Leptospermum scoparium
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Myrtales, Family: Myrtaceae, Genus: Leptospermum L.   Specie: Leptospermum scoparium  J.R. Forst.
From: New Zealand 
 Recommended Dilution: Any Note: Middle Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 3-4 m
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 138-140° F      Plant Part: Leaves
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image Deep Floral Scent
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-First-Trimester)

Open Source PDF Documents for Manuka
 
1. A Fresh Look at Manuka and Kanuka Essential Oils from New Zealand
2. Essential Oils with Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Cytotoxic Properties
 
3. The New Zealand Essential Oil Industry: Its Past, Present and Future


 
Manuka (Lemon) -- Leptospermum petersonii   aka:  Leptospermum citratum
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Myrtales, Family: Myrtaceae, Genus: Leptospermum L.   Specie: Leptospermum petersonii  Bailey
Etymology:  Leptospermum - Greek for thin or slender         petersonii - For Paul M. Peterson, 1954 -present
 From: Australia  Guatemala  Kenya  S. Africa 
 Recommended Dilution: Low Note: Top Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 3-4 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Leaves
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Light Floral Scent
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Glaucoma(Avoid-if-have-Glaucoma)     Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Health Uses: 
Acne   Athletes Foot   Bronchitis   Cold Sores   Colds   Coughs   Cuts   Diarrhea   Infections   Rashes   Sore Throats   Sunburns   Thrush   Tonsillitis   Warts  
Emotional States: 
Anxiety   Depression   Stress (Emotional)
Properties: 
Analgesic   Anti-bacterial   Anti-biotic   Anti-depressant   Anti-fungal   Anti-infectious   Anti-inflammatory   Anti-parasitic   Anti-septic-general   Anti-viral   Decongestant   Expectorant  
Oil Constituents
Citral  Citronellal  Pinene 
Deters These Pests: 
Mosquitoes

Open Source PDF Documents for Manuka (Lemon)
 
1. Antifungal Activities of Clove Bud and Lemon Manuka
2. Antifungal Investigations on Plant Essential Oils. A Review
 
3. Fumigant Antifungal Activity of Myrtaceae Essential Oils


 
Marigold -- Calendula officinalis  --- Please see Calendula
 


 
Marigold (African) -- Tagetes bipinata   aka:  Tagetes glandulifera  --- Please see Tagetes
 


 
Marjoram (Sweet) -- Origanum majorana   aka:  Majorana hortensis Latin AliasOleum Majoranae
French NameMarjolaine  German NameMajorankraut  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Lamiales, Family: Lamiaceae, Genus: Origanum L.   Specie: Origanum majorana  L.
Etymology:  Origanum - A plant that streches and grows in all directions, Greek oros - mountain, ganos - delight         majorana - The large form
From: Egypt  France  Germany  Hungary  Portugal  Spain 
 Recommended Dilution: Low Note: Middle Astral Bodies: Mercury   Plant Catagory: Perennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity: Yang     Element: Air Plant Height: 50-100 cm
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: Love  Money   Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Flowers/Leaves
 Specific Gravity: 0.890 - 0.920Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Soft Spicy Scent
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Asthma(Avoid-if-have-Asthma)     Low-Blood-Pressure(Avoid-if-you-have-LBP)     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)
Health Uses: 
Arthritis (Osteo)   Arthritis (Rheumatoid)   Asthma   Boils   Bronchitis   Bruises   Burns   Cold Sores   Colds   Colic   Conjunctivitis   Constipation   Cuts   E. coli   Headaches   High Blood Pressure   Insomnia   Low Blood Pressure   Menstration (Dysmenorrhoea)   Migraines   Rheumatism   Ringworm   Sprains   Sunburns   Viruses   Water Retention  
Emotional States: 
Happiness   Stress (Physical)
Properties: 
Anaphrodisiac   Anti-bacterial   Anti-catarrh   Anti-fungal   Anti-infectious   Anti-septic-general   Anti-spasmodic   Diuretic   Expectorant   Nervine   Sedative   Stimulant-digestive  
Oil Constituents
Linalyl acetate  Terpinen-4-ol  Terpinene  Terpineol acetate 

Addendum(s)
 Plant Growing Tips
Sow the seeds inside in spring. Transplant outside in early summer, 12 inches apart in rich, light soil with full sun. Harvest flowers and leaves for teas, cooking, potpourri, or essential oil distillation.

Open Source PDF Documents for Marjoram (Sweet)
 
1. Antifungal Activity and Chemical Composition of Twenty Essential Oils Against Fungi
2. Antimicrobial Action of Essential Oils: The Effect of DSMO on Cinnamon Oil
3. Antimicrobial and Antiviral Effects of Essential Oils from Apiaceae and Lamiaceae
4. Aromatherapy in Pregnancy
5. Aromatherapy in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders
6. Essential Oils in Combination and Their Antimicrobial Properties
 
7. Essential Oils with Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Cytotoxic Properties
8. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of a Sizable Set of Essential Oils
9. Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage
10. Origanum vulgare and Origanum majorana and Conjunctivitis
11. The Effect of Stimulating and Soothing Smells on Heart Rate and Memory


 
Mastic -- Pistacia lentiscus
French NameMastic  German NameMastix  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Sapindales, Family: Anacardiaceae, Genus: Pistacia L.   Specie: Pistacia lentiscus  L.
Etymology:  Pistacia - Greek for pistachio nut         lentiscus - Refers to mastic
 From: Canary Islands  France  Greece  Iran  Morocco  Turkey U.S. Growth Region: None
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Base Astral Bodies: Mercury  Sun   Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity: Yang     Element: Air Plant Height: 4-5 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Leaves
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Health Uses: 
Coughs   Edema   Headaches   Lymphatic Drainage   Muscle Aches   Muscle Pain   Muscle Spasms   Respiratory Infections   Respiratory Tract Infections   Sinus Congestion   Varicose Veins  
Properties: 
Analgesic   Anti-spasmodic   Decongestant   Fixative   Tonic-neuro   Tonic-venous  
Oil Constituents
Limonene  β-Myrcene (17%)   α-Phellandrene (8%)   β-Phellandrene (4%)   α-Pinene (18%)   β-Pinene (3%)   Terpinen-4-ol (5%)  

Open Source PDF Documents for Mastic
 
1. A Review on Antidermatophytic Efficiency of Plant Essential Oils
2. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Pistacia lentiscus
 
3. Essential Oil Composition of Leaves of Pistacia lentiscus


 
May Chang -- Litsea cubeba Latin AliasOleum Cubebae
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Laurales, Family: Lauraceae, Genus: Litsea L.   Specie: Litsea cubeba  L.
Etymology:  Litsea - A small plum         cubeba - Cubeb
 From: China  India  Thailand  Vietnam 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Middle Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Shrub
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 5-10 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Fruit
 Specific Gravity: 0.880Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Sweet Fruity Scent
Approaches: 
Diffuser  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Glaucoma(Avoid-if-have-Glaucoma)     Internal-Use-May-Plug-Kidney-Tubules     Keep-Away-From-Children     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)     Skin-Irritant(mild)
Health Uses: 
Headaches   Indigestion   Muscle Aches  
Emotional States: 
Depression
Properties: 
Analgesic   Anti-depressant   Anti-inflammatory   Anti-microbial   Anti-septic-general   Astringent   Stimulant-general   Tonic-general  
Oil Constituents
1,8 Cineole (0.2%)
Citral (68.3%-92.2%)
Geranial (39.2%-49.8%)
Limonene (2.1%-12.7%)
β-Myrcene (0%-1.7%)
Neral (29.1%-42.4%)
α-Pinene (0.2%-1.6%)
β-Pinene (0%-1.2%)
Sabinene (0.1%-0.7%)
Deters These Pests: 
Cockroaches   Mosquitoes

Open Source PDF Documents for May Chang
 
1. Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Litsea cubeba
2. Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Litsea cubeba from China
 
3. Mosquito Repellents in Thailand
4. Repellent Activity of Essential Oils Against Cockroaches in Thailand


 
Melissa -- Melissa officinalis
French NameMelisse  Spanish NameToronjil  German NameMelissenkraut  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Lamiales, Family: Lamiaceae, Genus: Melissa L.   Specie: Melissa officinalis  L.
Etymology:  Melissa - A honey bee - or - yields honey         officinalis - A plant used officially in medicine
From: France  Mediteranean  Turkey 
 Recommended Dilution: High Note: Top Astral Bodies: Jupiter  Moon  Venus   Plant Catagory: Perennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity: Yin     Element: Water Plant Height: 70-150
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: Love   Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 110-112° F      Plant Part: Flowers/Leaves
 Specific Gravity: 0.855Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image Light Citrusy Scent
Approaches: 
Bath  Candles  Foot Bath  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Always-Dilute     Glaucoma(Avoid-if-have-Glaucoma)     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-First-Trimester)     Skin-Irritant(mild)
Health Uses: 
Asthma   Bronchitis   Cold Sores   Colds   Colic   Coughs   Dementia   E. coli   Eczema   Fever   Hypertension   Indigestion   Insect Bites   Insomnia   Menstration (Dysmenorrhoea)   Menstration (Irregular)   Menstration (Scanty)   Migraines   Nausea   Sunstroke   Vomiting  
Emotional States: 
Depression   Shock
Properties: 
Anti-bacterial   Anti-depressant   Anti-microbial   Anti-septic-general   Anti-spasmodic   Anti-viral   Healing   Sedative  
Oil Constituents
γ-Camphene (0.2%-0.6%)
β-Caryophyllene (4.6%-24.6%)
Caryophyllene oxide (1.1%-1.3%)
Citral (17.2%-74.2%)
Citronellal (5.9%-9.2%)
Citronellol (0%-1%)
Geranial (9.4%-47%)
Geraniol (0.9%-4.4%)
Geranyl acetate (0.3%-1.9%)
Linalol (0.6%-0.9%)
β-Myrcene (0.1%-0.6%)
Neral (7.8%-29.2%)
Nerol (0.3%-1.8%)

Folklore: 
Also known as the "Elixir of Life".

Open Source PDF Documents for Melissa
 
1. A Novel Method to Estimate the Contribution of the Vapor Activity of Essential Oils
2. Antimicrobial and Synergistic Effects of some Essential Oils to Fight Pathogens
3. Antioxidant Attributes of Four Lamiaceae Essential Oils
4. Aromatherapy in Dementia
5. Aromatherapy in the Management of Psychiatric Disorders
6. Aromatherapy in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders
7. Behavior Management of Dementia Patients
8. Complementary Therapies and Dementia
9. Efficacy of Aroma Therapy for Dementia
10. Essential Oil Component in Flower of Lemon Balm
11. Essential Oils as Novel Human Skin Penetration Enhancer - Transdermal Drug Delivery
 
12. Essential Oils in Combination and Their Antimicrobial Properties
13. Essential Oils with Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Cytotoxic Properties
14. GC/MS Analysis of Herbage Essential Oil from Lemon Balms Grown in Turkey
15. Influence of Growing Location and Variety on the Oil Content of Melissa and Thyme
16. Lemon Balm: An Herb Society of America Guide
17. Menopause: Essential Oils Vs. Traditional Allopathic Medicine
18. Pharmaceutical and Therapeutic Potentials of Essential Oils
19. Sensory Stimulation in Dementia
20. Sensory Stimulation in the Treatment of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of Dementia
21. The Journal of Quality Research in Dementia
22. Treating a Brown Recluse Spider Bite


 
Mimosa -- Mimosa pudica   aka:  Acacia dealbata
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Fabales, Family: Fabaceae, Genus: Mimosa L.   Specie: Mimosa pudica  L.
From: Australia  Brazil  France  India 
 Recommended Dilution: High Note: Base Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Shrub
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 1-2 m
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D,S/E
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Flowers/Leaves
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Always-Dilute     Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Properties: 
Fixative  
Oil Constituents
Mimonsine 

Addendum(s)
 Note
Mimosa trees will not produce flowers unless they are kept at 25°C with 85°C humidity.


 
MQV -- Melaleuca viridiflora   aka:  Melaleuca quinquenervia viridiflora  --- Please see Niaouli
 


 
Mugwort -- Artemisia vulgaris   aka:  Artemisia arborescens , Artemisia herba-alba
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Asterales, Family: Asteraceae, Genus: Artemisia L.   Specie: Artemisia vulgaris  L.
Etymology:  Artemisia - The Goddess Artemis         vulgaris - Common
 From: Morocco 
 Recommended Dilution: High Note: Middle Astral Bodies: Mercury  Moon  Neptune   Plant Catagory: Perennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity: Yin     Element: Water Plant Height:  1-2 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers:  Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point     Clairvoyance  Power   Plant Part: Flowers/Leaves
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image 
Approaches: 
Infusion  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Always-Dilute     Keep-Away-From-Children     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)
Properties: 
Anti-spasmodic   Carminative   Diuretic   Emmenagogues   Stimulant-digestive   Stimulant-general   Stomachic   Tonic-uterine  
Oil Constituents
Thujone 

Open Source PDF Documents for Mugwort
 
1. Essential Oils with Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Cytotoxic Properties
 
2. Plant-based Insect Repellents: A Review of their Efficacy and Testing


 
Musk Seed -- Hibiscus abelmoschus  --- Please see Ambrette Seed
 


 
Mustard -- Brassica nigra   aka:  Brassica sinapioides , Sinapis nigra    ---
      Extracted oil from this plant is not used in aromatherapy.  

 This oil was sometimes used in the past and has the Latin alias of Oleum Sinapis Volatile

Mustard seed and mustard powder are common culinary items and can be consumed without any problem. During the maceration process to obtain the essential oil out of the seeds, however, a high concentration of a new chemical is formed known as allyl isothiocyanate. Allyl isothiocyanate is not present in the natural seed or powder; its highly present in the derived oil (about 90% concentration). Because of allyl isothiocyanate, just smelling the oil usually causes inflammation of the eyes and mucus membranes and touching the oil can burn the skin. Obviously, Mustard oil should not be used in aromatherapy.

A list of other oils which should not be used in aromatherapy can be viewed here -- Unused Essential Oils In Aromatherapy
 


 
Myrrh -- Commiphora myrrha   aka:  Commiphora molmol
French NameMyrrhe  German NameMyrrhenbaum  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Sapindales, Family: Burseraceae, Genus: Commiphora L.   Specie: Commiphora myrrha  Arn.
Etymology:  Commiphora - Greek - kommis and phora meaning gum bearer         myrrha - Bitter
From: Ethiopia  Jordan  Somalia  Yemen U.S. Growth Region: None
 Recommended Dilution: Any Note: Base Astral Bodies: Moon  Saturn   Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Base-Middle Polarity: Yin     Element: Water Plant Height: 3-4 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 3000 yrs Magical Powers: Protection   Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 135-137° F      Plant Part: Resin
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Deep Resinous Scent
Approaches: 
Candles  Compress  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Internal-Use-May-Plug-Kidney-Tubules     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-First-Trimester)
Health Uses: 
Arthritis (Rheumatoid)   Asthma   Athletes Foot   Bleeding Gums   Bronchitis   Candida   Coughs   Cuts   Diarrhea   Dysentery   Dyspepsia   Eczema   Flatulence   Gingivitis   Hemorrhoids   Infertility (Female)   Laryngitis   Menstration (Amenorrhoea)   Prostate (General Problems)   Ringworm   Scrapes   Sinus Congestion   Sinus Infections   Sore Throats   Sores   Stretch Marks   Sunscreen   Thrush   Tonsillitis   Toothaches   Ulcers   Uterine Tumors   Warts   Wounds   Wrinkled Skin   Yeast Infections  
Properties: 
Anti-catarrh   Anti-fungal   Anti-infectious   Anti-inflammatory   Anti-microbial   Anti-parasitic   Anti-septic-general   Astringent   Fixative   Healing   Vulnerary  
Oil Constituents
β-Caryophyllene (0.4%-0.5%)   Curzerene (22%-40.8%)   Furanoeudsmadiene (25.6%-49.1%)   Germacrene A (1.2%-2.6%)   Germacrene D (0.6%-1.6%)   α-Humulene (0%-0.2%)   Lindeatrene (3.6%-8.6%)  

Abstract: 
The tree trunks are marked with cuts from which a thick resin exudes. As the resin makes contact with the air it hardens up and forms a bead. The resin beads are then collected and steam distilled or vacuum distilled. High quality Myrrh is characterized by a dark, clear, sticky resin, with a sharp, bitter scent. When burned, authentic Myrrh will expand and create a thick, heavy smoke.

Addendum(s)
 Note
Myrrh is known for moving stagnate blood and increasing the vibrance and motility of white blood cells. It is also known for balancing mucous activity. In addition, it is an excellent cell rebuilder making it invaluable for treating wounds, scrapes, cuts, etc.

Note 2
Its often said that Myrrh actually becomes more valuable with age.

Open Source PDF Documents for Myrrh
 
1. A Novel Method to Estimate the Contribution of the Vapor Activity of Essential Oils
2. Antibacterial Activity of Oleo-gum Resins
3. Aromatherapy as an Adjunct for the Management and Treatment of Pain
4. Essential Oils Then and Now - Biblical References
5. Essential Oils with Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Cytotoxic Properties
6. Frankincense & Myrrh: A Gift of Tree History
7. Frankincense & Myrrh: Were the "Wise Men" on to Something?
 
8. Frankincense and Myrrh Resources of Ethiopia
9. Frankincense and Myrrh: The World's Two Most Important Resins
10. Myrrh - Commiphora Chemistry
11. Myrrh: A Significant Development in the Treatment of Parasites
12. Optimising Fertility with Essential Oils
13. Susceptibilities of Candida albicans Mouth Isolates to Antifungal Agents
14. The Additive and Synergistic Antimicrobial Effects of Frankincense and Myrrh Oils


 
Myrrh (East Indian) -- Commiphora erythraea  --- Please see Myrrh
 


 
Myrrh (Indian) -- Commiphora mukul  --- Please see Myrrh
 Note: This is a lower quality Myrrh which is less expensive and sometimes used to adulterate regular Myrrh. In India this Myrrh has been used for several years for its antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties and is a common treatment for athritis. Some scientific sources also state that this resin is taken internally (in proper doses) to lower cholesterol. I am still researching this...
 


 
Myrtle -- Myrtus communis
French NameMyrte  German NameMyrtenblätter  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Myrtales, Family: Myrtaceae, Genus: Myrtus L.   Specie: Myrtus communis  L.
Etymology:  Myrtus - Greek and Latin name for myrtle         communis - Growing together
 From: Algeria  France  Italy  Morocco  Spain  Turkey 
 Recommended Dilution: Low Note: Top Astral Bodies: Venus   Plant Catagory: Shrub
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity     Element: Water Plant Height: 5 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers:  Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point     Fertility  Love  Money   Plant Part: Leaves
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Health Uses: 
Hemorrhoids   Insomnia   Oily Skin   Rashes  
Properties: 
Anti-catarrh   Anti-infectious   Anti-septic-general   Anti-spasmodic   Carminative   Expectorant   Stomachic   Tonic-general  
Oil Constituents
Nerol 

Open Source PDF Documents for Myrtle
 
1. A Mediterranean: Myrtus communis L.
2. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils of Two Plants Containing 1,8-cineole
3. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn
4. Antileishmanial and Cytotoxic Effects of Essential Oil of Myrtus communis
5. Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Myrtus communis Berries
6. Antimicrobial and Synergistic Effects of some Essential Oils to Fight Pathogens
7. Antimicrobial Characteristics of Some Herbal Oils on Pseudomonas aeruginosa
8. Antimicrobial Properties of Some Essential Oils against Pathogenic Microorganisms
9. Antimotility and Andidiarrhoel Activity of Myrtus communis Essential Oil
10. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils of Myrtle
11. Chiral Characterization of Monoterpenes present in Myrtus communis
12. Essential Oil Analysis of the Leaves of Persian True Myrtle
13. Essential Oil of Myrtus communis L. as a Potential Antioxidant/Antimutagenic
 
14. Essential Oils Isolated from Myrtaceae Family as Natural Insecticides
15. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of a Sizable Set of Essential Oils
16. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of the Essential Oil of Myrtle
17. Evolution of the Yields and Composition of Essential Oil of Myrtle
18. Identify the Essential Oils in Myrtus Communis L. Leaves
19. Measurements of Essential Oil Extract and Antioxidants in Syrian Myrtle Leaves
20. Myrtle Essential Oil for The Treatment of Hemorrhoids
21. Phytochemical of Constituents of Essential Oil from Myrtus communis by GC-MS
22. Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties of Myrtus communis L.
23. Sedative-hypnotic Like Effect of the Essential Oil from the Leaves of Myrtle
24. Synergistic Antibacterial Effect of Myrtle and Thyme Essential Oils
25. Valorization of Myrtus communis Essential Oil Obtained by Steam Distillation


 
Myrtle (Anise) -- Syzygium anisatum   aka:  Backhousia anisata , Anetholea anisata
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Myrtales, Family: Myrtaceae, Genus: Syzygium Gaertn.   Specie: Syzygium anisatum  (Vickery) Craven & Biffen
From: Australia 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Top Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity: Yang     Element Plant Height: 50m
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Leaves
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Breast-Cancer(Avoid-if-have-Breast-Cancer)     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)
Health Uses: 
Candida  
Properties: 
Anti-fungal   Anti-microbial  
Oil Constituents
Anethole (90%)  


 
Myrtle (Lemon) -- Backhousia citriodora
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Myrtales, Family: Myrtaceae, Genus: Backhousia Hook. & Harv.   Specie: Backhousia citriodora  F.Muell.
From: Australia 
 Recommended Dilution: Low Note: Top Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 4-6m
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 4 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Leaves
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Health Uses: 
Colds  
Properties: 
Anti-bacterial   Anti-microbial   Germicide  
Oil Constituents
Citral 

Open Source PDF Document for Myrtle (Lemon): 
1. Essential Oils with Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Cytotoxic Properties


 
Narcissus -- Narcissus poeticus    ---      Extracted oil from this plant is not used in aromatherapy.  

 
French Name: Narcisse  German Name: Narcissenblüthen  

Currently I am unable to find specific details as to why this oil is on several people's "Don't Touch It!" list. Many sources do not give any reason whatsoever while some sources simply say "It's too toxic." or "Never use it." or "I would never have it in my house."

There are a number of oils that appear to be in a "Grey Area" category. For example, I have noticed that some authors will shy away from Cedar Leaf and Mugwort claiming that they are "Too toxic for use in aromatherapy". Then, 4 other books will go on to explain all of the uses for Cedar Leaf and Mugwort. Likely the cause for concern with these two particular oils is Thujone. Whether or not the author then goes on to talk about Thujone, this particular cause for concern is a valid one. Many sources are void of any reasons that explain why a particular oil should be avoided. Occasionally, one source here or there will even contradict itself within the same document saying that it is toxic on one page and its used for __________ on another page.

Two things seem consistent, however.

 1.  Several different book authors agree that this oil should not be used in aromatherapy.
 2. Often, merchants who have this oil listed for sale either ignore all of the warnings, don't know about them, or explain how their particular oil is somehow special and not toxic.

Erring on the side of safety, this oil will stay on my Unused list unless future information can convince me otherwise. If you are interested in some purported property or health benefit from this particular oil, consider using a different oil - we've got plenty.

Unraveling the mysteries of the Unused is a path of brambles. The search for answers continues.

A list of other oils which should not be used in aromatherapy can be viewed here -- Unused Essential Oils In Aromatherapy
 


 
Neroli (Bigarade) -- Citrus bigaradia  --- Please see Neroli (Portugal)
     French NameFleurs de Oranges          German NameOrangenblüthen          Latin AliasOleum Aurantii Florum     
 Note: Neroli Bigarade is usually the most sought after and highly prized grade of Neroli oil. It is also the most expensive. It's properties are nearly identical to those of Neroli Portugal.
 


 
Neroli (Portugal) -- Citrus aurantium Latin AliasOleum Aurantii Florum
French NameFleurs de Oranges  German NameOrangenblüthen  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Sapindales, Family: Rutaceae, Genus: Citrus L.   Specie: Citrus aurantium  L.
Etymology:  Citrus - Citrus like, from Citron in Judaea         aurantium - Orange colored
From: China  Portugal 
 Recommended Dilution: Low Note: Middle Astral Bodies: Sun   Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity: Yang     Element: Fire Plant Height: 10-30 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: C/P,E/S/E,F/D,M/A/E
Oil is Child Safe (Diluted) Oil Flash Point: 129-131° F      Plant Part: Flowers
 Specific Gravity: 0.889Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Phototoxic(high)     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-First-Trimester)
Health Uses: 
Body Odor   Facial Skin (Wrinkles)   Scabies   Scrapes   Wrinkled Skin  
Emotional States: 
Anxiety   Depression   Shock
Properties: 
Anti-bacterial   Anti-depressant   Anti-infectious   Anti-parasitic   Anti-septic-general   Anti-spasmodic   Aphrodisiac   Carminative   Deodorant   Nervine   Sedative   Stimulant-digestive   Stimulant-lymph   Stimulant-nervous-system   Stomachic   Tonic-cardiac  
Oil Constituents
Jasmone  Limonene  Linalol  Linalyl acetate  Nerol  Terpinolene 
Deters These Pests: 
Cats

Open Source PDF Documents for Neroli (Portugal)
 
1. Aromatherapy in Pregnancy
2. Essential Oil Interventions for Premenstrual Syndrome and the Menopause
 
3. Optimising Fertility with Essential Oils
4. The Role of Essential Oils in the Treatment and Management of ADHD


 
Neroli Absolute -- Citrus aurantium  --- Please see Neroli (Portugal)
 Note: Neroli Absolute is obtained via solvent extraction of the flowers from the Citrus aurantium tree. The absolute is generally not as desired for use in aromatherapy partly due to the trace amounts of solvent contaminants found in the finished product. However, Neroli Absolute has no phototoxic properties because of its lack of lactones, coumarins, and furanoids so it is safe to use just before going out in the sun, into a tanning booth, to a discotheque with UV lights, etc. (The Chemistry of Essential Oils Made Simple: God's Love Manifest in Molecules  pg 381)

Neroli oil that has been collected via the method of Expression, however, is very phototoxic because of its coumarin content. So, Neroli oil which is not an absolute should not be applied to the skin just before going into a "UV ray environment".

 


 
Niaouli -- Melaleuca viridiflora   aka:  Melaleuca quinquenervia viridiflora
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Myrtales, Family: Myrtaceae, Genus: Melaleuca L.   Specie: Melaleuca viridiflora  Sol. Ex Gaertn.
Etymology:  Melaleuca - Greek: Mela - black, leuca - white; references the black trunks and white branches of some species         viridiflora - Green flowers
 From: Australia  East Indies  Tasmania 
 Recommended Dilution: Low Note: Top Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 10-15 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: Protection   Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 129-131° F      Plant Part: Leaves/Twigs
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Sweet Resinous Scent
Approaches: 
Sauna  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Keep-Away-From-Children     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)
Health Uses: 
Burns   Cystitis   Herpes   Vaginal Infections  
Properties: 
Anti-biotic   Anti-septic-general  

Open Source PDF Documents for Niaouli
 
1. Case History of Infected Eczema Treated with Essential Oils
2. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Melaleuca Species
3. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Oil from Melaleuca L. Species
 
4. Essential Oils as Novel Human Skin Penetration Enhancer - Transdermal Drug Delivery
5. Essential Oils Isolated from Myrtaceae Family as Natural Insecticides
6. Spectrometric Identifations of Sesquiterpene Alcohols from Niaouli


 
Nutmeg -- Myristica fragrans   aka:  Myristica officinalis Latin AliasOleum Myristicae
French NameMuscade  German NameMuscatnüsse  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Magnoliales, Family: Myristicaceae, Genus: Myristica Gronov.   Specie: Myristica fragrans  Gronov.
Etymology:  Myristica - Fit for anointing, Greek: myristikos meaning fragrant         fragrans - Fragrant
 From: Indonesia  Java  Sri Lanka  Sumatra  Thailand  West Indies 
 Recommended Dilution: High Note: Middle Astral Bodies: Jupiter  Moon   Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Base-Middle-Top Polarity: Yang     Element: Fire Plant Height: 20-25 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: Luck  Money   Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 130-132° F      Plant Part: Seeds
 Specific Gravity: 0.880 - 0.948Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Warm Spicy Scent
Approaches: 
Candles  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Always-Dilute     Cummulative-Effects     Keep-Away-From-Children     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Overuse-Causes-Convulsions     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)     Use-Sparingly     Use-With-Extreme-Caution
Health Uses: 
Bleeding Gums   Diarrhea   Flatulence   Indigestion   Insomnia   Intestinal Infections   Mental Fatigue   Rheumatism   Toothaches  
Properties: 
Analgesic   Anti-biotic   Anti-inflammatory   Anti-parasitic   Anti-septic-general   Anti-spasmodic   Aphrodisiac   Emmenagogues   Febrifuge   Stimulant-digestive  
Oil Constituents
Elemicine (0.4%-1.4%)
Eugenol (0.3%-1.7%)
Limonene (4%-5.6%)
Methyl eugenol (0.8%-1.2%)
β-Myrcene (2%)
Myristic acid
Myristicin (9.9%-13.6%)
Para-cymene (1.5%-2.1%)
α-Phellandrene (1%)
β-Phellandrene (1.9%-2.5%)
α-Pinene (10.2%-23.4%)
β-Pinene (14.1%-15.2%)
Sabinene (10.9%-21.4%)
Safrole (1.4%-4.3%)
Terpinen-4-ol (4.7%-13.9%)
α-Terpinene (2.7%-4.3%)
γ-Terpinene (3.8%-6.3%)
α-Terpineol (0.7%-3.1%)
Terpinolene (1.6%-1.9%)
α-Thuyene (0.8%-2.6%)

Open Source PDF Documents for Nutmeg
 
1. A Novel Method to Estimate the Contribution of the Vapor Activity of Essential Oils
2. Activity of Myristica fragrans and its Effect Against Fungus
3. Antibacterial Activity of Boesenbergia rotunda and Myritica fragrans
4. Antibacterial Activity of Myristica fragrans Against Oral Pathogens
5. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils Against Respiratory Tract Pathogens
6. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils and their Synergy with Fluconazole
7. Antimicrobial Agents from Plants: Antibacterial Activity of Plant Oils
8. Antimicrobial Agents from Plants: Antibacterial Activity of Plant Volatile Oils
9. Christmas Gingerbread and Christmas Cheer
 
10. Compounds in the Essential Oil of Nutmeg
11. Essential Oils as Novel Human Skin Penetration Enhancer - Transdermal Drug Delivery
12. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Some Plant Essential Oils
13. Mosquito Repellents in Thailand
14. Pharmacology and Chemisty of Myristica fragrans Houtt.
15. Phytochemical Analysis and Anticancer Activity of Oil of Myristica fragrans
16. Phytochemical Studies on Myristica fragrance Essential Oil
17. The Potential Effectiveness of Essential Oils as a Treatment for Head Lice
18. The Role of Essential Oils in the Treatment and Management of ADHD


 
Nutmeg Flower -- Nigella sativa  --- Please see Black Cumin
 Note: Nutmeg Flower is more commonly known as Black Cumin which is sometimes referred to as an essential oil but the size and type of its molecules more closely classify it as a carrier oil. Black Cumin oil is also sometimes referred to as Roman Coriander, Black Caraway, Fennel Flower, or Blackseed.
 

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All information, suggestions, and opinions shown on this website are for educational purposes only and do not replace
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I am NOT a doctor and never, ever want to be one!         I am not responsible for any of your health choices!
Information given here has not been evaluated by the US FDA nor by any other U.S. governing body to the
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