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  Oakmoss
Oil of Lebanon
Olibanum
Onion
Onycha
Opopanax
Orange (Bitter)
Orange (Sweet)
Orange Blossom
Oregano
 Orris Root (Florentina)
Orris Root (Germanica)
Osmanthus
Owyhee
Palmarosa
Palo Santo
Parsley Leaf
Parsley Seed
Patchouli
Pennyroyal
 Pepper Tree Leaf
Peppermint
Perilla
Peru balsam
Petitgrain
Petitgrain Combarva
Pimento
Pine (Scotch)
Plai
Plumeria
 Rambiazana
Ravensara
Ravintsara
Rhododendron
Rock Rose
Rock Samphire
Rosalina
Rose (Bourbon Type)
Rose Absolute
Rose Otto
 Rosemary
Rosemary (Borneol)
Rosemary (Cineol)
Rosemary (Verbenon)
Rosewood
Rosewood (Cayenne)
Rue
 

  Oils A-B      Oils C-E      Oils F-J      Oils K-N      Oils O-R      Oils S-Z  

 
Oakmoss -- Evernia prunastri
   
 
Div: Ascomycota, Class: Ascomycetes, Order: Lecanorales, Family: Parmeliaceae, Genus: Evernia Ach.   Specie: Evernia prunastri  Ach.
Etymology:  Evernia - Sprouts well         prunastri - Prun - a plum -or- to prune, astri - sort of like
From: China  France  Italy  Morocco  Yugoslovia 
Recommended Dilution: High Note: Base Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Perennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 1-2 cm
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: Money  Prosperity   Extraction: S/E
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Moss
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Always-Dilute     Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Health Uses: 
Headaches   Respiratory Infections   Sinus Congestion   Sinus Infections  
Properties: 
Anti-septic-general   Fixative  

Open Source PDF Document for Oakmoss: 
1. Chemical composition of Evernia prunastri and Ramalina farinacea


 
Oil of Lebanon -- Boswellia carterii  --- Please see Frankincense
 Note: This oil has a Latin alias of Oleum Libanum
This is simply just another name for Frankincense.
 


 
Olibanum -- Boswellia papyrifera  --- Please see Frankincense
     French NameEncens          German NameWeihrauch     
 Note: Olibanum is sometimes refered to as the "poor man's Frankincense". It is a lower quality oil and usually sold at a lower price.
 


 
Onion -- Allium cepa    ---      Extracted oil from this plant is not used in aromatherapy.  

 Onion oil is not used in aromatherapy due to its unpleasant odor. Its often used in the food and flavor industries.

A list of other oils which should not be used in aromatherapy can be viewed here -- Unused Essential Oils In Aromatherapy
 


 
Onycha -- Styrax benzoin  --- Please see Benzoin
 


 
Opopanax -- Commiphora guidotti   aka:  Commiphora erythraea  --- Please see Myrrh
 


 
Orange (Bitter) -- Citrus aurantium  --- Please see Neroli (Portugal)
 


 
Orange (Sweet) -- Citrus sinensis Latin AliasOleum Aurantii Corticis
French NameEcorce de Oranges  German NameOrangenschalen  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Sapindales, Family: Rutaceae, Genus: Citrus L.   Specie: Citrus sinensis  L.
Etymology:  Citrus - Citrus like, from Citron in Judaea         sinensis - From China
 From: Brazil  France  Spain  Turkey  USA 
 Recommended Dilution: Any Note: Top Astral Bodies: Neptune  Sun   Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity: Yang     Element: Fire Plant Height: 10-12 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: Love  Luck  Money   Extraction: C/P,E/S/E,F/D,M/A/E
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 134-136° F      Plant Part: Fruit Peel
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Deep Fruity Scent
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-First-Trimester)
Health Uses: 
Dementia   E. coli  
Emotional States: 
Depression
Properties: 
Anti-bacterial   Anti-depressant   Anti-fungal   Anti-inflammatory   Anti-septic-general  
Oil Constituents
Limonene  Sinensal 
Deters These Pests: 
Cats

Open Source PDF Documents for Orange (Sweet)
 
1. A Review on Antidermatophytic Efficiency of Plant Essential Oils
2. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils and their Synergy with Fluconazole
3. Antimicrobial and Synergistic Effects of some Essential Oils to Fight Pathogens
4. Antimicrobial Properties of Some Essential Oils against Pathogenic Microorganisms
5. Aromatherapy in the Management of Psychiatric Disorders
6. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Citrus sinensis
7. Determination of Bactericidal Efficacy of Essential Oil From Orange Peel
8. Essential Oils as Anti-Protozoal Agents
9. Essential Oils as Novel Human Skin Penetration Enhancer - Transdermal Drug Delivery
 
10. Evaluation of Aromatherapy in Institutional Elder Care Settings
11. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of a Sizable Set of Essential Oils
12. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Some Plant Essential Oils
13. Insect Repellent Activity of Medicinal Plant Oils Against Mosquitoes
14. Study on Essential Oils from Four Species of Zhishi with GC-MS
15. Synergistic Interactions of Lavender Essential Oil
16. The Role of Essential Oils in the Treatment and Management of ADHD
17. Versatile Psychophysiological Potencies of Essential Oils
18. Yield and Chemical Composition of Citrus Essential Oils as Affected by Peels


 
Orange Blossom -- Citrus aurantium  --- Please see Neroli (Portugal)
 


 
Oregano -- Origanum vulgare
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Lamiales, Family: Lamiaceae, Genus: Origanum L.   Specie: Origanum vulgare  L.
Etymology:  Origanum - A plant that streches and grows in all directions, Greek oros - mountain, ganos - delight         vulgare - Common
From: Asia  Egypt  Europe  Morocco  Turkey 
 Recommended Dilution: High Note: Middle Astral Bodies: Mercury   Plant Catagory: Perennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity: Yang     Element: Air Plant Height: 50-100 cm
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 131-133° F      Plant Part: Flowers/Leaves
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image Deep Spicy Scent
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Always-Dilute     Asthma(Avoid-if-have-Asthma)     Do-Not-Use-for-Massage     Keep-Away-From-Children     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)     Skin-Irritant(high)     Use-Sparingly
Health Uses: 
Asthma   Bronchitis   Conjunctivitis   E. coli   Lice   Pneumonia   Scabies   Spider Bites   Viruses   Yeast Infections  
Properties: 
Anti-bacterial   Anti-biotic   Anti-catarrh   Anti-fungal   Anti-infectious   Anti-microbial   Anti-parasitic   Anti-rheumatic   Anti-septic-general   Anti-viral  
Oil Constituents
Carvacrol  β-Caryophyllene (5%)   Methyl chavicol  Thymol 

Addendum(s)
 Plant Growing Tips
Sow the seeds outside in late spring (after frost has past), in slightly alkaline soil with full sun. Harvest leaves when desired for teas, cooking, potpourri, or essential oil distillation.

Open Source PDF Documents for Oregano
 
1. A Novel Method to Estimate the Contribution of the Vapor Activity of Essential Oils
2. A Review on Antidermatophytic Efficiency of Plant Essential Oils
3. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils: Potential Application in Food
4. Antidermatophytic Activity of Essential Oils
5. Antifungal Activity and Chemical Composition of Twenty Essential Oils Against Fungi
6. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils Against Respiratory Tract Pathogens
7. Antifungal activity of Plant Oils against Oral Clinical Isolates of Candida
8. Antifungal Investigations on Plant Essential Oils. A Review
9. Antimicrobial Agents from Plants: Antibacterial Activity of Plant Oils
10. Antimicrobial Agents from Plants: Antibacterial Activity of Plant Volatile Oils
11. Antimicrobial and Antiviral Effects of Essential Oils from Apiaceae and Lamiaceae
12. Antimicrobial and Synergistic Effects of some Essential Oils to Fight Pathogens
13. Blessed by Essential Oils - Simple Guidelines and Uses of Essential Oils
14. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Ten Plants
 
15. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils
16. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils from Origanum vulgare
17. Das Verhalten der Bacterien des Fleischwassers gegen einige Antiseptica
18. Essential Oils as Modifiers of Rumen Microbial Fermentation
19. Essential Oils in Combination and Their Antimicrobial Properties
20. Essential Oils: Their Antibacterial Properties and Potential Application in Food
21. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of a Sizable Set of Essential Oils
22. Investigation on Antibacterial Synergism of Oregano and Thyme Essential Oils
23. Nanoencapsulation of Essential Oils with Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity
24. Origanum vulgare and Origanum majorana and Conjunctivitis
25. Pharmaceutical and Therapeutic Potentials of Essential Oils
26. Potent Protection
27. Treating a Brown Recluse Spider Bite


 
Orris Root (Florentina) -- Iris florentina Latin AliasOleum Iridis
French NameEssence de Iris  German NameIrisöl  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Liliopsida, Order: Liliales, Family: Iridaceae, Genus: Iris L.   Specie: Iris florentina  L.
Etymology:  Iris - having varied colors         florentina - From Florence, Italy
 From: Italy 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Middle Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Perennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 50cm
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Rhizomes
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Oil Constituents
Irone  Myristic acid (85%)  

Abstract: 
During the late 1800s the best Orris oil was cultivated in the Italian provinces of Florence, Arezzo, Grosseto, and Perugia. The plants grow on hills and mountain slopes in areas with plenty of sunshine and do best in dry stony soil. The highest quality oil is distilled from rhizomes that are 3 years old, harvested, soaked in water, peeled, and then laid out to dry for about 2 weeks. Often the dried root is ground into a powder and sold for other non-aromatherapy uses. The remains of the roots including the peels are then sold for the distillation of the essential oil.

Steam distillation typically produces a small yield of essential oil - about .1 to .2 percent and it's difficult to distill because of the root's high starch content. These two factors result in a very expensive essential oil and adulteration is common - sometimes by mixing cedar oil and Orris oil together.

Orris oil typically has a high concentration of Myristic acid (odorless) and derives most of its scent from Irone. Irone concentration can be increased by double distilling and this is sometimes done if the producer is mainly interested in the scent, such as a producer for the perfume industry.


 
Orris Root (Germanica) -- Iris germanica  --- Please see Orris Root (Florentina)
 Note: Iris germanica grows in Germany as well as France and other parts of southern Europe. The "Veronese" root (from Iris germanica) is said to be inferior for use in essential oil distillation (The Florentine root - Iris florentina being much more suitable). The "Morocco or Mogadore" root (from Iris germanica) is said to be even worse than the Veronese root for the production of essential oil. Oil from the Florentine root has a light yellow to white color while oil from the Veronese root or Morocco root is darker in color. However, sometimes the poorer quality oil is bleached in an attempt to pass it off as being a higher quality. Of course, bleaching it makes it undesirable for aromatherapy...
 


 
Osmanthus -- Osmanthus fragrans
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Scrophulariales, Family: Oleaceae, Genus: Osmanthus Lour.   Specie: Osmanthus fragrans  Lour.
From: China 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Top Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Shrub
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge Polarity     Element Plant Height: 6m
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 5 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/E
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Flowers
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Emotional States: 
Depression
Properties: 
Anti-depressant  

Abstract: 
The flowers of this shrub normally blume from June to August and may appear yellow, orange, or even reddish depending on the subspecies.

This oil is often used in high end perfumes and can be difficult to find. Its said to be very relaxing, comforting, and calming.

Open Source PDF Document for Osmanthus: 
1. Determination of Essential Oil Composition from Osmanthus fragrans Tea


 
Owyhee -- Artemisia ludoviciana  --- Please see Sagebrush (White)
 


 
Palmarosa -- Cymbopogon martini
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Liliopsida, Order: Cyperales, Family: Poaceae, Genus: Cymbopogon Spreng.   Specie: Cymbopogon martini  J.F. Watson
From: Brazil  C. America  Madagascar  Philippines 
 Recommended Dilution: Low Note: Top Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Grass
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity     Element Plant Height: 2-5 cm
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 122-124° F      Plant Part: Grass
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Warm Floral Scent
Approaches: 
Room Spray  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Skin-Irritant(mild)
Health Uses: 
Acne   Candida   E. coli   Fever   Infections   Rashes   Urinary Tract Infections   Wrinkled Skin  
Emotional States: 
Anxiety   Stress (Emotional)
Properties: 
Anti-bacterial   Anti-fungal   Anti-microbial   Anti-septic-general   Anti-viral   Stimulant-circulatory   Stimulant-digestive  
Oil Constituents
β-Caryophyllene (0.9%-2.5%)
Citral (0.2%-4.2%)
Farnesol (0%-1.5%)
Geranial (0%-2.8%)
Geranil acetate (29%)
Geraniol (63.5%-83.8%)
Geranyl acetate (4.6%-10.4%)
Linalol (2.1%-4.3%)
β-Myrcene (0.1%-0.4%)
Neral (0.2%-1.5%)
Nerol (0%-0.2%)

Abstract: 
Studies done in Brazil in 2006 suggest that Lemon Verbena essential oil, Citronella (Javan) essential oil, and Palmarosa essential oil are strong inhibitors of Escherichia coli commonly known as E. coli. (Effects of Essential Oils on Escherichia coli)

Open Source PDF Documents for Palmarosa
 
1. A Comprehensive Review of Vaginitis Phytotherapy
2. A Novel Method to Estimate the Contribution of the Vapor Activity of Essential Oils
3. A Review on Antidermatophytic Efficiency of Plant Essential Oils
4. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils and their Synergy with Fluconazole
5. Antifungal Investigations on Plant Essential Oils. A Review
6. Antimicrobial Action of Essential Oils: The Effect of DSMO on Cinnamon Oil
7. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Plant Essential Oils
8. Chemical Profiles of Primary and Secondary Essential Oils of Palmarosa
9. Effects of Essential Oils on Escherichia coli
 
10. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Some Plant Essential Oils
11. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils Against Isolates from HIV Patients
12. Pharmaceutical and Therapeutic Potentials of Essential Oils
13. Phytochemicals: New Weapons against New Enemies
14. Plant-based Insect Repellents: A Review of their Efficacy and Testing
15. Potential Herbs and its Phytoconstituents Against Fungal Infection
16. Role of Volatile Oil of Natural Source in the Cosmetics and Health Care Industries
17. Versatile Psychophysiological Potencies of Essential Oils


 
Palo Santo -- Bursera graveolens
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Sapindales, Family: Burseraceae, Genus: Bursera L.   Specie: Bursera graveolens  Triana & Planch.
From: Argentina  Bolivia  C. America  Columbia  Ecuador  Paraguay 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Top Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 10m
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Wood
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Oil Constituents
Germacrene D (2%)   Limonene  Pulegone (1%)  


 
Parsley Leaf -- Petroselinum crispum   aka:  Petroselinum sativum , Carum sativum    ---
      Extracted oil from this plant is not used in aromatherapy.  

 Currently I am unable to find specific details as to why this oil is on several people's "Don't Touch It!" list. Many sources do not give any reason whatsoever while some sources simply say "It's too toxic." or "Never use it." or "I would never have it in my house."

There are a number of oils that appear to be in a "Grey Area" category. For example, I have noticed that some authors will shy away from Cedar Leaf and Mugwort claiming that they are "Too toxic for use in aromatherapy". Then, 4 other books will go on to explain all of the uses for Cedar Leaf and Mugwort. Likely the cause for concern with these two particular oils is Thujone. Whether or not the author then goes on to talk about Thujone, this particular cause for concern is a valid one. Many sources are void of any reasons that explain why a particular oil should be avoided. Occasionally, one source here or there will even contradict itself within the same document saying that it is toxic on one page and its used for __________ on another page.

Two things seem consistent, however.

 1.  Several different book authors agree that this oil should not be used in aromatherapy.
 2. Often, merchants who have this oil listed for sale either ignore all of the warnings, don't know about them, or explain how their particular oil is somehow special and not toxic.

Erring on the side of safety, this oil will stay on my Unused list unless future information can convince me otherwise. If you are interested in some purported property or health benefit from this particular oil, consider using a different oil - we've got plenty.

Unraveling the mysteries of the Unused is a path of brambles. The search for answers continues.

A list of other oils which should not be used in aromatherapy can be viewed here -- Unused Essential Oils In Aromatherapy
 


 
Parsley Seed -- Petroselinum crispum   aka:  Petroselinum sativum , Carum sativum
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Apiales, Family: Apiaceae, Genus: Petroselinum J. Hill   Specie: Petroselinum crispum  (Mill.) Nyman ex A.W. Hill
Etymology:  Petroselinum - Greek petros - rocks   selinon - celery         crispum - Latin - with curled leaves
 From: France  Germany  Holland  Hungary  Tasmania 
 Recommended Dilution: High Note: Middle Astral Bodies: Mars   Plant Catagory: Biennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity: Yang     Element: Air Plant Height: 20-80 cm
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: Lust  Protection   Extraction: CO2,S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Seeds
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Always-Dilute     Keep-Away-From-Children     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Phototoxic(mild)     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)     Skin-Irritant(medium)     Urinary-Tracts(Can-Caution-Irritation)     Use-Sparingly
Properties: 
Anti-septic-general   Anti-spasmodic   Aphrodisiac   Diuretic   Emmenagogues   Galactagogue   Psychotropic  
Oil Constituents
Apiol 

Folklore: 
Parsley is a symbol of rebirth. The stem was used in love magic.

Addendum(s)
 Plant Growing Tips
Sow the seeds outside in late spring (after frost has past), in well-drained, rich soil with regular water and full sun. Harvest leaves when desired for teas, cooking, potpourri, or essential oil distillation.

Open Source PDF Document for Parsley Seed: 
1. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils and their Synergy with Fluconazole


 
Patchouli -- Pogostemon cablin   aka:  Pogostemon patchouli
French NamePatchouly  German NamePatschulikraut  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Lamiales, Family: Lamiaceae, Genus: Pogostemon L.   Specie: Pogostemon cablin  Benth.
From: China  India  Indonesia  Japan  Malaysia  Mauritius  Philippines  Vietnam 
Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Base Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Perennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Base-Middle Polarity     Element Plant Height: 50-100 cm
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: Fertility  Money   Extraction: S/D
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Leaves
 Specific Gravity: 0.950 - 1.012Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image Warm Earthy Scent
Approaches: 
Candles  Foot Bath  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Internal-Use-May-Plug-Kidney-Tubules     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-First-Trimester)
Health Uses: 
Acne   Cellulite   Dandruff   Dementia   Dermatitis   Eczema   Hemorrhoids   Hives   Insect Bites   Obesity   Snake Bite   Water Retention   Wounds   Wrinkled Skin  
Emotional States: 
Depression   Stress (Chemical)   Stress (Mental)
Properties: 
Anti-bacterial   Anti-biotic   Anti-depressant   Anti-fungal   Anti-infectious   Anti-inflammatory   Anti-microbial   Anti-septic-general   Astringent   Decongestant   Diuretic   Insecticidal   Stimulant-digestive   Vulnerary  
Oil Constituents
Patchoulol 

Addendum(s)
 Note
Its often said that Patchouli oil actually becomes more valuable with age.

Open Source PDF Documents for Patchouli
 
1. Antioxidant Attributes of Four Lamiaceae Essential Oils
2. Aromatherapy in the Management of Psychiatric Disorders
 
3. GC-MS Fingerprint of Pogostemon cablin in China
4. Plant-based Insect Repellents: A Review of their Efficacy and Testing


 
Pennyroyal -- Mentha pulegium   aka:  Hedeoma pulegioides    ---      Extracted oil from this plant is not used in aromatherapy.  

 This oil was sometimes used in the past and has the Latin alias of Oleum Hedomae

Spanish Name: Poleo  

Pennyroyal oil should never be used in aromatherapy. It is often know for its abortive effects. In addition, exposure to only small amounts of it can cause lung and liver damage. It's toxic effects are likely due to high concentrations of Pulegone.

A list of other oils which should not be used in aromatherapy can be viewed here -- Unused Essential Oils In Aromatherapy
 


 
Pepper Tree Leaf -- Schinus molle
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Sapindales, Family: Anacardiaceae, Genus: Schinus L.   Specie: Schinus molle  L.
Etymology:  Schinus - Mastic         molle - Peruvian word for soft
 From: Argentina  Bolivia  Chile  Greece  India  Kenya  Mexico  Peru  Spain  Turkey  USA 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Middle Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 3-15m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Leaves
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Health Uses: 
Rheumatism  
Properties: 
Anti-fungal  

Abstract: 
Three distinct types of essential oil can be derived from this plant: oil from the resin, oil from the berries, oil from the leaves. Currently I am lacking information about oil from the resin and berries and so those oils have not yet been included in this site...

The seeds can be ground and used as a pepper substitute; hence the name "Pepper Tree".

The alcoholic beverage known as "Copalocle" or "Copalote" is obtained by fermenting the berries with pulque for one or two days. This drink can be found in Mexico.

Open Source PDF Document for Pepper Tree Leaf: 
1. Schinus molle: a New Source of Natural Fungitoxicant


 
Peppermint -- Mentha piperita Latin AliasOleum Menthse Piperitae
French NameMenthe Poivrée  German NamePfefferminze  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Lamiales, Family: Lamiaceae, Genus: Mentha L.   Specie: Mentha piperita  L.
Etymology:  Mentha - Minthe, daughter of Cocyton         piperita - Pepper scented
From: China  England  France  Tasmania  Turkey  USA U.S. Growth Region: 4
Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Top Astral Bodies: Mercury   Plant Catagory: Perennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity: Yang     Element: Fire Plant Height: 20-90 cm
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: Lust  Protection   Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 132-134° F      Plant Part: Whole Plant
 Specific Gravity: 0.902 - 0.930Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image Warm Minty Scent
Approaches: 
Bath  Compress  Diffuser  Enema  Tissue  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Avoid-During-Cardiac-Fibrillation     Keep-Away-From-Children     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)
Health Uses: 
Arthritis (Rheumatoid)   Asthma   Blood Pressure - Normalizes   Body Odor   Bronchitis   Candida   Colic   Dementia   Diarrhea   E. coli   Fever   Food Poisoning   Hangover   Headaches   Heartburn   Heatstroke   Hemorrhoids   Hives   Hot Flashes   Indigestion   Inflamed Joints   Menstration (Dysmenorrhoea)   Menstration (Scanty)   Migraines   Morning Sickness   Muscle Soreness   Nausea   Rheumatism   Sunstroke   Throat Infections   Toothaches   Tuberculosis   Varicose Veins   Vomiting  
Emotional States: 
Anxiety   Depression   Shock
Properties: 
Analgesic   Anti-bacterial   Anti-biotic   Anti-catarrh   Anti-depressant   Anti-fungal   Anti-infectious   Anti-inflammatory   Anti-microbial   Anti-neuralgic   Anti-parasitic   Anti-septic-general   Anti-spasmodic   Carminative   Decongestant   Deodorant   Expectorant   Febrifuge   Healing   Insecticidal   Insect-repellent   Stimulant-digestive   Stimulant-general   Stimulant-memory   Stimulant-mental  
Oil Constituents
Carvone
1,8 Cineole (4.3%-6.9%)
Coumarines
Limonene (2.9%-3.3%)
Linalool
Menthol (33.8%-39%)
iso-Menthol (0%-0.5%)
Menthone (21.4%-22.9%)
iso-Menthone (4.3%-4.8%)
Methyl acetate (4.2%-4.9%)
α-Pinene (0%-0.7%)
β-Pinene (1.1%-1.4%)
Pulegone (2.4%-3.7%)
iso-Pulegone (0%-0.1%)
Sabinene (0.4%-0.6%)
Viridiflorol
Deters These Pests: 
Ants   Aphids   Beetle (bean)   Beetle (flea)   Caterpillars   Flies (common)   Gnats   Mice / Rats   Moths

Addendum(s)
 Caution
Take care when purchasing Peppermint as I have seen a fair number of "Peppermint" bottles that have "Mentha arvensis" written on them. "Mentha arvensis" is used to produce Cornmint, a lower quality oil.

Plant Growing Tips
Sow the seeds outside in late spring (after frost has past), in most soils with partial sun. Harvest leaves when desired for teas, cooking, potpourri, or essential oil distillation.

Open Source PDF Documents for Peppermint
 
1. A Comprehensive Review of Vaginitis Phytotherapy
2. A Review on Antidermatophytic Efficiency of Plant Essential Oils
3. American Druggist and Pharmaceutical Record - Mint
4. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils Against Respiratory Tract Pathogens
5. Antiemetic Activity of Oil of Mint in Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting
6. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils and their Synergy with Fluconazole
7. Antifungal Investigations on Plant Essential Oils. A Review
8. Antimicrobial Action of Essential Oils: The Effect of DSMO on Cinnamon Oil
9. Antimicrobial and Antiviral Effects of Essential Oils from Apiaceae and Lamiaceae
10. Antimicrobial and Synergistic Effects of some Essential Oils to Fight Pathogens
11. Antimicrobial Screening of Mentha piperita Essential Oils
12. Antioxidant Property of Volatile Oils Determined by the Ferric Reducing Ability
13. Aromatherapy in the Management of Psychiatric Disorders
14. Aromatic Plants of Morocco: GC/MS Analysis of Mentha piperita
15. Blessed by Essential Oils - Simple Guidelines and Uses of Essential Oils
16. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils of Ten Plants
17. Comparative Evaluation in Efficacy of Peppermint Oil Against Bacterial Pathogens
18. Comparative Sporicidal Effects of Volatile Oils
19. Essential Oils and Hypertension
20. Essential Oils as Anti-Protozoal Agents
21. Essential Oils as Novel Human Skin Penetration Enhancer - Transdermal Drug Delivery
22. Essential Oils in Combination and Their Antimicrobial Properties
23. Essential Oils with Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Cytotoxic Properties
 
24. Evaluation of Aromatic Plants Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections
25. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of a Sizable Set of Essential Oils
26. Evidence-Based Aromatherapy: Stress Relief and Much More
27. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Some Plant Essential Oils
28. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils Against Isolates from HIV Patients
29. In-vitro Antioxidant Activity and GC/MS Studies of Mentha piperita
30. Mineral Content, Essential Oil Components of Peppermint and Spearmint
31. Modulation of Cognitive Performance and Mood by Aromas of Peppermint, Ylang-Ylang
32. Nanoencapsulation of Essential Oils with Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity
33. Neuropathies: Essential Oils Show Promising Results in the Fight Against Symptoms
34. Olivia's Essential Oils Guide for Dummies
35. Pharmaceutical and Therapeutic Potentials of Essential Oils
36. Plant-based Insect Repellents: A Review of their Efficacy and Testing
37. Potent Protection
38. Potential Herbs and its Phytoconstituents Against Fungal Infection
39. Screening of the Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Eight Essential Oils
40. Susceptibilities of Candida albicans Mouth Isolates to Antifungal Agents
41. The Longwood Herbal Task Force - Peppermint
42. The New Zealand Essential Oil Industry: Its Past, Present and Future
43. The Potential Effectiveness of Essential Oils as a Treatment for Head Lice
44. The Role of Essential Oils in the Treatment and Management of ADHD
45. The Yield and Essential Oil Content of Mint (Mentha ssp.) in Northern Ostrobothnia
46. Versatile Psychophysiological Potencies of Essential Oils


 
Perilla -- Perilla frutescens   aka:  Perilla ocimoides
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Lamiales, Family: Lamiaceae, Genus: Perilla L.   Specie: Perilla frutescens  L.
From: Europe  Japan  South Korea 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Top Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Annual
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity     Element Plant Height: 50-150cm
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Leaves/Twigs
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Oil Constituents
β-Caryophyllene (3%)   Egomaketone (28%)   α-Humulene (0.2%)   Linalool (1%)   Perillaketone (55%)  

Open Source PDF Documents for Perilla
 
1. A Novel Method to Estimate the Contribution of the Vapor Activity of Essential Oils
2. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils Against Respiratory Tract Pathogens
 
3. Essential Oil from Leaves, Spikes and Seeds of Perilla ocimoides L.
4. Preliminary Analysis on Essential Oil Composition of Perilla L.


 
Peru balsam -- Myroxylon pereirae  --- Please see Balsam de Peru
 


 
Petitgrain -- Citrus aurantium
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Sapindales, Family: Rutaceae, Genus: Citrus L.   Specie: Citrus aurantium  L.
Etymology:  Citrus - Citrus like, from Citron in Judaea         aurantium - Orange colored
 From: Brazil  France  Italy  Mediteranean  Paraguay 
 Recommended Dilution: Low Note: Top Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity     Element Plant Height: 10-30 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 119-121° F      Plant Part: Leaves/Twigs
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Deep Fruity Scent
Approaches: 
Bath  Diffuser  Facial  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Phototoxic(mild)     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-First-Trimester)
Health Uses: 
Acne   Body Odor   Dyspepsia   Flatulence   Insomnia  
Emotional States: 
Depression   Stress (Chemical)
Properties: 
Anti-bacterial   Anti-depressant   Anti-infectious   Anti-inflammatory   Anti-septic-general   Anti-spasmodic   Deodorant   Sedative  
Oil Constituents
Linalol  Linalyl acetate  Terpineol 
Deters These Pests: 
Cats


 
Petitgrain Combarva -- Citrus hystrix  --- Please see Petitgrain
 Note: As far as I can tell thus far, Petitgrain Combarva has a substancially different chemical make-up than that of Petitgrain. Petitgrain Combarva has approx 80-85% Citronellal and around 8% Citronellol while Petitgrain oil contains those constituents in lower concentrations. I am still researching this particular oil and hope to have more here in the future...
Please see Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activities and Chemical Composition of Selected Thai Spices
 

Deters These Pests: 
Cockroaches

 
Pimento -- Pimenta officinalis  --- Please see Allspice
 


 
Pine (Scotch) -- Pinus sylvestris Latin AliasOleum Pini Sylvestris
   
 
Div: Coniferophyta, Class: Pinopsida, Order: Pinales, Family: Pinaceae, Genus: Pinus L.   Specie: Pinus sylvestris  L.
Etymology:  Pinus - Ancient greek name for pine         sylvestris - From the woods or forest
From: England  Finland  Germany  N. America  Russia  Sweden U.S. Growth Region: 3-4
 Recommended Dilution: High Note: Middle Astral Bodies: Mars   Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity: Yang     Element: Air Plant Height: 20-35 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: Money   Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 124-126° F      Plant Part: Needles
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Soft or Light Resinous Scent
Approaches: 
Candles  Diffuser  Sauna  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Always-Dilute     Avoid-if-have-Extreme-Allergies     Glaucoma(Avoid-if-have-Glaucoma)     Internal-Use-May-Plug-Kidney-Tubules     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)     Skin-Irritant(medium)
Health Uses: 
Arthritis (Rheumatoid)   Asthma   Bronchitis   Colds   Coughs   Cuts   Diabetes   Gout   Infections   Lice   Low Blood Pressure   Pneumonia   Scabies   Sinus Infections   Sores   Tuberculosis   Urinary Tract Infections  
Properties: 
Anti-bacterial   Anti-biotic   Anti-catarrh   Anti-fungal   Anti-infectious   Anti-microbial   Anti-septic-general   Anti-viral   Disinfectant   Expectorant   Healing   Nervine  
Oil Constituents
Bornyl acetate (0.2%-0.8%)
δ-Cadinene (1.7%-1.8%)
Camphene (1.7%-3.4%)
β-Caryophyllene (1.5%-2.1%)
α-Humulene (0.3%)
Limonene (3.9%-7.4%)
β-Myrcene (3.8%-4.2%)
Para-cymene (0%-0.3%)
β-Phellandrene (0%-1%)
α-Pinene (26.9%-40.7%)
β-Pinene (0%-5.8%)
Sabinene (0.1%-0.5%)
Terpinen-4-ol (0%-0.1%)
α-Terpinene (0.2%)
γ-Terpinene (0.4%)
α-Terpineol (0.2%-0.9%)
Terpinolene (0%-2.6%)
Terpinyl acetate (0%-0.6%)
Deters These Pests: 
Fleas   Lice

Abstract: 
Pine oil commonly causes skin sensitization and/or skin irritation in high concentrations. For that reason it is normally not used for massage except when highly diluted. Pine oil works best via inhalation and is nice in a diffuser.

Open Source PDF Documents for Pine (Scotch)
 
1. Antifungal activity of Plant Oils against Oral Clinical Isolates of Candida
2. Changes in the Essential Oil Composition in the Needles of Scots Pine
3. Characteristics of Essential Oil Composition in the Needles of Young Scots Pine
4. Comparative Sporicidal Effects of Volatile Oils
 
5. Essential Oil Composition and Plant-Insect Relations in Scots Pine
6. Essential Oils and Hypertension
7. Fungicidal Properties of Pinus sylvestris L. for Improvement of Air Quality


 
Plai -- Zingiber cassumunar   aka:  Zingiber montanum
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Liliopsida, Order: Zingiberales, Family: Zingiberaceae, Genus: Zingiber Mill.   Specie: Zingiber cassumunar  Mill.
From: Thailand 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Middle Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Rhizomes
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Properties: 
Anti-inflammatory  
Oil Constituents
Sabinene (18%)   Terpinen-4-ol (40%)  

Open Source PDF Documents for Plai
 
1. Antifungal Activity and Chemical Composition of Twenty Essential Oils Against Fungi
2. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activities and Chemical Composition of Thai Spices
 
3. Antioxidant Activity of Cassumunar Ginger
4. Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Plants from the Ginger Family, Zingiberaceae


 
Plumeria -- Plumeria rubra  --- Please see Frangipani
 


 
Rambiazana -- Helichrysum gymnocephalum
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Asterales, Family: Asteraceae, Genus: Helichrysum Mill.   Specie: Helichrysum gymnocephalum  (DC.) Humb.
From: Madagascar 
 Recommended Dilution: Low Note: Top Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Biennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 50-100cm
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 5 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D,S/E
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Flowers
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Health Uses: 
Colds   Headaches  
Properties: 
Analgesic   Anti-microbial   Decongestant  
Oil Constituents
1,8 Cineole (47%)  

Open Source PDF Document for Rambiazana: 
1. Helichrysum gymnocephalum Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Activities


 
Ravensara -- Ravensara aromatica
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Laurales, Family: Lauraceae, Genus: Ravensara L.   Specie: Ravensara aromatica  L.
Etymology:  Ravensara - Madagascar word for "good leaf"         aromatica - Aromatic
 From: Australia  Madagascar 
 Recommended Dilution: Low Note: Top Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 20-25 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 134-136° F      Plant Part: Leaves
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Soft Resinous Scent
Approaches: 
Tissue  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-First-Trimester)
Health Uses: 
Asthma   Bronchitis   Burns   Colds   Cuts   Earaches   Herpes   Insomnia   Pneumonia   Sinus Infections   Viruses   Wounds  
Properties: 
Anti-bacterial   Anti-biotic   Anti-catarrh   Anti-fungal   Anti-infectious   Anti-septic-general   Anti-viral   Expectorant   Vulnerary  
Oil Constituents
1,8 Cineole  Pinene  Terpineol 

Open Source PDF Document for Ravensara: 
1. A Novel Method to Estimate the Contribution of the Vapor Activity of Essential Oils


 
Ravintsara -- Cinnamomum camphora  --- Please see Camphor (White)
 


 
Rhododendron -- Rhododendron anthopogon
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Ericales, Family: Ericaceae, Genus: Rhododendron L.   Specie: Rhododendron anthopogon  D.Don.
From: China  England  France  Germany  Greece  India  Italy  Nepal  Portugal  Spain  USA 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Middle Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Shrub
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 50-80 cm
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Leaves
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches: 
Bath  Diffuser  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Health Uses: 
Adrenals (Weak Adrenals)   Colds   Coughs   Headaches   Sore Throats  
Properties: 
Anti-bacterial   Anti-inflammatory   Anti-microbial   Anti-spasmodic   Decongestant   Tonic_adrenal   Tonic-liver   Tonic-neuro  

Open Source PDF Documents for Rhododendron
 
1. Chemical Composition and Biological Properties of Rhododendron anthopogon
 
2. Toxicity of Rhododendron anthopogonoides towards Sitophilus zeamais


 
Rock Rose -- Cistus ladaniferus   aka:  Cistus ladanifer , Cistus incanus
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Violales, Family: Cistaceae, Genus: Cistus L.   Specie: Cistus ladaniferus  L.
From: Africa  Portugal  Spain 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Middle Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Shrub
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Base-Middle Polarity     Element Plant Height: 1-3 m
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Leaves
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Health Uses: 
Arthritis (Rheumatoid)   Colds   Coughs   Infections   Inflamed Joints   Insomnia   Menstration (PMS)   Muscle Aches   Scars   Wounds  
Properties: 
Anti-infectious   Anti-septic-general   Astringent   Fixative   Tonic-neuro   Vulnerary  


 
Rock Samphire -- Crithmum maritimum   aka:  Cachrys maritima , Crithmum canariense
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Apiales, Family: Apiaceae, Genus: Crithmum L.   Specie: Crithmum maritimum  L.
From: France 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Middle Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Perennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 30cm
 Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 5 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
 Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Whole Plant
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)


 
Rosalina -- Melaleuca ericifolia
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Myrtales, Family: Myrtaceae, Genus: Melaleuca L.   Specie: Melaleuca ericifolia  Sm.
Etymology:  Melaleuca - Greek: Mela - black, leuca - white; references the black trunks and white branches of some species         ericifolia - has leaves like the genus Erica
 From: Australia  Tasmania 
 Recommended Dilution: Low Note: Top Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 15 - 20 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Leaves/Twigs
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Soft Resinous Scent
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption

Abstract: 
This oil is a "Tea Tree" equivalent, however, it has a much nicer smell.

Open Source PDF Documents for Rosalina
 
1. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Essential Oils from Melaleuca Species
2. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Oil from Melaleuca L. Species
 
3. Essential Oils Isolated from Myrtaceae Family as Natural Insecticides


 
Rose (Bourbon Type) -- Rosa bourbonia  --- Please see Rose Otto
 Note: Bourbon Rose is cultivated and produced on Réunion Island (French Territory) located in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar. Réunion Island used to be known as "Bourbon", hence the name "Bourbon Type".
 


 
Rose Absolute -- Rosa damascena   aka:  Rosa centifolia , Rosa bourbonia  --- Please see Rose Otto
 Note: Rose Absolute is distilled by solvent extraction. The process of solvent extraction commonly uses hexane and petroleum ether and these chemicals often leave a residue in the resulting rose oil. Every attempt is made to recover the hexane and petroleum ether for re-use, however, a small residue of about 1-10 parts per million is commonly found in Rose Absolute. Because of the environmental hazards involved and the trace amounts of volatile chemical residue Rose Absolute is not as popular in aromatherapy as Rose Otto which is steam distilled or CO2 extracted. Rose Absolute is less expensive because its produced in mass for the perfume industry. It's color is deep yellow while Rose Otto is virtually colorless.
 


 
Rose Otto -- Rosa damascena   aka:  Rosa centifolia , Rosa gallica Latin AliasOleum Rosae
French NameEssence de Roses  German NameRosenöl  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Rosales, Family: Rosaceae, Genus: Rosa L.   Specie: Rosa damascena  Mill.
Etymology:  Rosa - From Greek 'rodon' meaning 'red' ; Celtic for "red"         damascena - From Damascus, Syria
From: Bulgaria  France  Morocco  Réunion Island  Syria  Turkey 
Recommended Dilution: High Note: Middle Astral Bodies: Venus   Plant Catagory: Shrub
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity: Yin     Element: Water Plant Height: 100-200 cm
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: Love  Luck   Extraction: CO2,S/D
Oil is Child Safe (Diluted) Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Petals/Flowers
 Specific Gravity: 0.832Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Light Floral Scent
Approaches: 
Bath  Candles  Facial  Hand Bath  Humidifier  Room Spray  Tissue  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Always-Dilute     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-First-Trimester)
Health Uses: 
Asthma   Bronchitis   Facial Skin (Wrinkles)   Fever   Gingivitis   Headaches   Herpes   Infections   Infertility (Female)   Menstration (Irregular)   Menstration (Menorrhagia)   Menstration (Scanty)   Scars   Sprains   Sunstroke   Thrush   Tuberculosis   Ulcers   Wounds   Wrinkled Skin  
Emotional States: 
Depression   Frigidity   Stress (Emotional)
Properties: 
Anti-depressant   Anti-infectious   Anti-inflammatory   Anti-septic-general   Anti-spasmodic   Anti-viral   Aphrodisiac   Astringent   Bactericides   Cicatrising   Emmenagogues   Healing   Laxative   Sedative   Stomachic   Tonic-cardiac   Tonic-liver   Tonic-uterine   Vulnerary  
Oil Constituents
Citronellol  Geraniol  Linalol  Nerol 

Abstract: 
Rose Otto is mainly produced from thousands of acres of Rosa damascena rose fields on the southern slopes of the Balkans. The best quality rose oil is said to originate from flowers grown at an altitude of 1000 meters above sea level or higher. Flowers are picked at dawn during a 40 day flowering period starting in the end of May and continuing into June. Once picked the flowers are distilled immediately. Over 10 tons of flowers (20,000 pounds) are needed to produce one pound of high quality Rose Otto essential oil. Because of the work involved, pure Rose Otto oil rarely reaches common consumers. Rose Otto is almost always diluted with Geranium oil, Palmarosa oil, or the chemical constituent Geraniol.

Roughly speaking it takes between 1.2 and 1.5 pounds of rose flowers to produce one drop of Rose Otto essential oil.

Turkey is one of the largest producers of rose oil in the world and production started in the region of Isparta in 1892 by Muftuzade Ismail Efendi. Today most of the production takes place in the southwestern regions of Isparta, Burdur, Afyon, and Denizli.

Rose Otto is also produced from Rosa centifolia throughout France.

Rose Otto is basically colorless and is of a higher theraputic quality than Rose Absolute    Rose Absolute is produced mainly for the perfume industry.

For a very in-depth write up of roses please see the following work by Mrs. M. Grieve -- www.botanical.com

Addendum(s)
 Caution
Rose Otto oil is often adulterated because of the extreme work involved to obtain the oil. Always be sure of your source when purchasing Rose Otto essential oil. To ensure high quality oil consider buying it directly from a producer in the Balkins.

Common Name Etymology
Rose Otto is also known as Attar of Roses
Attar is from the Turkish word itr - meaning perfume or odour
In Turkish Rose Otto is called Itr-yàghi = "Perfume-oil" and Ghyùl-yàghi = "Rose-oil"

Open Source PDF Documents for Rose Otto
 
1. Adulteration in Rose Oil
2. Analgesic and Anti Inflammatory Effects of Rosa damascena Essential Oil
3. Antimicrobial and Synergistic Effects of some Essential Oils to Fight Pathogens
4. Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Essential Oils
5. Aromatherapy in Pregnancy
6. Aromatherapy in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders
7. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Women
8. Characterization of Essential Oil from Offered Temple Flower Rosa damascena
9. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Rosa damascena
10. Essential Oil Composition of Rosa damascena
11. Essential Oil Interventions for Premenstrual Syndrome and the Menopause
12. Essential Oils and Hypertension
 
13. Essential Oils as Therapeutics
14. Floral Essential Oils: Importance and Uses for Mankind
15. Genetic Characterization of Rosa damascena Species in Syria
16. Menopause: Essential Oils Vs. Traditional Allopathic Medicine
17. Olivia's Essential Oils Guide for Dummies
18. Optimising Fertility with Essential Oils
19. Pharmacological Effects of Rosa damascena
20. Physico-Chemical Analysis of Essential Oil in Rosa centifolia
21. The Role of Essential Oils in the Treatment and Management of ADHD
22. Treating a Brown Recluse Spider Bite
23. Turkish Essential Oils


 
Rosemary -- Rosmarinus officinalis Latin AliasOleum Rosmarini
French NameRomarin  Spanish NameRomero  German NameRosmarin  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Lamiales, Family: Lamiaceae, Genus: Rosmarinus L.   Specie: Rosmarinus officinalis  L.
Etymology:  Rosmarinus - Rose of the sea         officinalis - A plant used officially in medicine
From: France  Japan  Mediteranean  Spain  Turkey  Yugoslovia U.S. Growth Region: 5
Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Middle Astral Bodies: Sun   Plant Catagory: Perennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity: Yang     Element: Fire Plant Height: 1-2 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 30 yrs Magical Powers: Love  Protection   Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point: 125-127° F      Plant Part: Whole Plant
 Specific Gravity: 0.895 - 0.916Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Soft Resinous Scent
Approaches: 
Chest Rub  Diffuser  Sauna  
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Asthma(Avoid-if-have-Asthma)     Epilepsy(Avoid-if-you-have-epilepsy)     Internal-Use-Causes-Abortion     Not-For-Internal-Consumption     Pregnancy(Avoid-During-Pregnancy)
Health Uses: 
Acne   Arthritis (Rheumatoid)   Asthma   Bronchitis   Candida   Cellulite   Colds   Constipation   Coughs   Dandruff   Dementia   Diabetes   E. coli   Gout   Hair Loss   Headaches   Lice   Low Blood Pressure   Migraines   Obesity   Rheumatism   Scabies   Sinus Infections   Sprains   Urinary Tract Infections   Varicose Veins   Viruses   Whooping Cough   Wounds  
Emotional States: 
Depression   Stress (Chemical)   Stress (Physical)
Properties: 
Analgesic   Anti-bacterial   Anti-catarrh   Anti-depressant   Anti-fungal   Anti-infectious   Anti-microbial   Anti-parasitic   Anti-rheumatic   Anti-septic-general   Aphrodisiac   Astringent   Diuretic   Expectorant   Insecticidal   Nervine   Psychotropic   Vulnerary  
Oil Constituents
Borneol  Camphor  β-Caryophyllene (0.1%-8.3%)   1,8 Cineole  Pinene 
Deters These Pests: 
Fleas   Lice

Abstract: 
Rosemary oil is one of the essential oils that is very often tampered with by industry. Be very choosy about your producer when buying this oil.

Folklore: 
Used to drive away evil spirits.

Addendum(s)
 Plant Growing Tips
Sow the seeds outside in late spring (after frost has past), 6 inches apart in sandy soil with full sun. Harvest stems, flowers, and leaves mid to late summer for teas, cooking, potpourri, or essential oil distillation.

Open Source PDF Documents for Rosemary
 
1. A Review on Antidermatophytic Efficiency of Plant Essential Oils
2. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils Against Respiratory Tract Pathogens
3. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils: Potential Application in Food
4. Antifungal Activity and Chemical Composition of Twenty Essential Oils Against Fungi
5. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils and their Synergy with Fluconazole
6. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils of Two Plants Containing 1,8-cineole
7. Antifungal Investigations on Plant Essential Oils. A Review
8. Antimicrobial Action of Essential Oils: The Effect of DSMO on Cinnamon Oil
9. Antimicrobial and Antiviral Effects of Essential Oils from Apiaceae and Lamiaceae
10. Antimicrobial and Synergistic Effects of some Essential Oils to Fight Pathogens
11. Aromatherapy in Pregnancy
12. Aromatherapy in the Management of Psychiatric Disorders
13. Aromatherapy in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders
14. Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils
15. Comparative Toxicity of Rosmarinus officinalis Against Spider Mites
16. Comparing Essential Oil Composition and Yield of Rosemary and Lavender
17. Essential Oils and Hypertension
18. Essential Oils as Modifiers of Rumen Microbial Fermentation
19. Essential Oils in Combination and Their Antimicrobial Properties
20. Essential Oils with Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antiviral, Cytotoxic Properties
 
21. Essential Oils: Their Antibacterial Properties and Potential Application in Food
22. Evaluation of Aromatherapy in Institutional Elder Care Settings
23. Evaluation of Aromatic Plants Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections
24. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of a Sizable Set of Essential Oils
25. Evidence-Based Aromatherapy: Stress Relief and Much More
26. In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Some Plant Essential Oils
27. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils Against Isolates from HIV Patients
28. Major Phenolic Acids, Phenolic Diterpenes, and Triterpenes in Rosemary
29. Mosquito Knock-down and Adulticidal Activities of Essential Oils by Various Methods
30. Olivia's Essential Oils Guide for Dummies
31. Pharmaceutical and Therapeutic Potentials of Essential Oils
32. Potent Protection
33. Repellent Activities of Essential Oils and Monoterpenes Against Mosquitoes
34. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) - A Study of CO2 Extracts
35. Screening of the Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Eight Essential Oils
36. Susceptibilities of Candida albicans Mouth Isolates to Antifungal Agents
37. The Effect of Stimulating and Soothing Smells on Heart Rate and Memory
38. The Role of Essential Oils in the Treatment and Management of ADHD
39. The Susceptibility of E. coli to Rosemary and Eucalyptus
40. Treating a Brown Recluse Spider Bite


 
Rosemary (Borneol) -- Rosmarinus officinalis
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Lamiales, Family: Lamiaceae, Genus: Rosmarinus L.   Specie: Rosmarinus officinalis  L.
Etymology:  Rosmarinus - Rose of the sea         officinalis - A plant used officially in medicine
 From: France  Japan  Mediteranean  Spain  Yugoslovia U.S. Growth Region: 5
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Middle Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Perennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity: Yang     Element: Fire Plant Height: 1-2 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Whole Plant
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Asthma(Avoid-if-have-Asthma)     Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Health Uses: 
Infections   Mental Fatigue   Muscle Cramps  
Properties: 
Tonic-cardiac  
Oil Constituents
1,8 Cineole 


 
Rosemary (Cineol) -- Rosmarinus officinalis
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Lamiales, Family: Lamiaceae, Genus: Rosmarinus L.   Specie: Rosmarinus officinalis  L.
Etymology:  Rosmarinus - Rose of the sea         officinalis - A plant used officially in medicine
 From: France  Japan  Mediteranean  Spain  Yugoslovia U.S. Growth Region: 5
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Middle Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Perennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity: Yang     Element: Fire Plant Height: 1-2 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Whole Plant
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     Light Resinous Scent
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Asthma(Avoid-if-have-Asthma)     Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Health Uses: 
Mental Fatigue   Muscle Aches  
Oil Constituents
1,8 Cineole 

Open Source PDF Document for Rosemary (Cineol): 
1. Neuropathies: Essential Oils Show Promising Results in the Fight Against Symptoms


 
Rosemary (Verbenon) -- Rosmarinus officinalis
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Lamiales, Family: Lamiaceae, Genus: Rosmarinus L.   Specie: Rosmarinus officinalis  L.
Etymology:  Rosmarinus - Rose of the sea         officinalis - A plant used officially in medicine
 From: France  Japan  Mediteranean  Spain  Yugoslovia U.S. Growth Region: 5
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Middle Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Perennial
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: Middle-Top Polarity: Yang     Element: Fire Plant Height: 1-2 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Whole Plant
 Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Asthma(Avoid-if-have-Asthma)     Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Health Uses: 
Dry Skin   Earaches   Hepatitus  
Oil Constituents
1,8 Cineole  Verbenone 


 
Rosewood -- Aniba rosaeodora   aka:  Aniba canelilla
French NameBois de Rose  
   
 
Div: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Order: Laurales, Family: Lauraceae, Genus: Aniba Ducke   Specie: Aniba rosaeodora  Ducke
Etymology:  Aniba - A Tupi Indian name         rosaeodora - Fragrance like a rose
 From: Brazil  Columbia  French Guiana  Guyana  Peru  Venezuela 
 Recommended Dilution: Mid Note: Top Astral Bodies: None Plant Catagory: Tree
 Floral Water Commonly Sold:  Bridge: None Polarity     Element Plant Height: 20-25 m
Common in Soapmaking:  Oil Shelf Life: 2 yrs Magical Powers: None Extraction: S/D
Oil is Child Safe:  Oil Flash Point      Plant Part: Wood
 Wikipedia Link    Plant Illustration    Plant Image     
Approaches
Jonn is not yet aware of any specific approaches.
Blends Well With: 
Please see the following page for details: Blends With 
Cautions: 
Not-For-Internal-Consumption
Health Uses: 
Acne   Candida   Cuts   Dementia   Eczema   Nausea   Vaginal Dryness   Wounds   Wrinkled Skin  
Emotional States: 
Depression
Properties: 
Anti-bacterial   Anti-depressant   Anti-fungal   Anti-infectious   Anti-microbial   Anti-parasitic   Anti-septic-general   Anti-viral   Vulnerary  
Oil Constituents
Linalol  Linalool 

Open Source PDF Documents for Rosewood
 
1. A Novel Method to Estimate the Contribution of the Vapor Activity of Essential Oils
 
2. Aromatherapy in the Management of Psychiatric Disorders


 
Rosewood (Cayenne) -- Dicypellium caryophyllatum  --- Please see Clove Bud
 Note: This oil comes from steam distilling the bark of a small tree that grows in Brazil and French Guiana. The oil has a similar smell and taste to that of Clove Bud oil. Clove Bark, Cayenne Rosewood, and Brazil Clove all refer to this same oil which comes from the bark of this small tree. This oil may be difficult to find because Clove Bud oil is such a perfect alternative.
 


 
Rue -- Ruta graveolens    ---      Extracted oil from this plant is not used in aromatherapy.  

 This oil was sometimes used in the past and has the Latin alias of Oleum Rutae

French Name: Rue  German Name: Raute  

Rue oil should never be used in aromatherapy. It is a serious skin irritant and can cause burns. In addition, it is a neurotoxin, an abortifacient, and highly phototoxic - meaning your skin will be highly vulnerable to sunlight.

The plant itself is very common in Europe and the U.S. and it typically grows up to a meter high and flowers from June until September.

The Rue plant is antispasmodic and a stimulant and the herb was often used for those properties centuries ago. Folklore suggests that the herb, not the oil, was magical, protected against evil, and even acted as a poison antidote. In particular, Hippocrates commended Rue (the plant - not the oil) as being diuretic and having the power of resisting contagion and poisons.

 

A list of other oils which should not be used in aromatherapy can be viewed here -- Unused Essential Oils In Aromatherapy
 

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Home
  Reference SourcesLast Update ☆ ~~ Jan 3, 2017   Home

  ~  The Recommended Fine Print  ~
All information, suggestions, and opinions shown on this website are for educational purposes only and do not replace
medical advice nor are they intended to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent any disease or health problems.
I am NOT a doctor and never, ever want to be one!         I am not responsible for any of your health choices!
Information given here has not been evaluated by the US FDA nor by any other U.S. governing body to the
best of my knowledge nor does it replace the advice of any licensed health-care professional.
Your health is your responsibility!!   Peace out.   ~ Jonn ☆ ~~