Home
 
  Essential Oils Are Perfumes and Perfumes Are Essential Oils

Jean-Francois Houbigant
1752-1807
  During the 1700s and early 1800s essential oils were still somewhat of a mystery. Although the botanical scientists of part 1 were doing their best to unlock the secrets of plants and put them each into their own catagories, the essential oils which came from them were still a bit elusive to science.

Undoubtedly the concept of "perfume" had existed for literally thousands of years prior to the eighteenth century. Egyptians, Arabs, Chinese, Greeks, and Romans all have had their unique interests in perfumes and their allure. History books burst with tales of ancient perfume love affairs. The perfume industry did seem to really expand in the mid 1700s, however, due to several reasons. Simply the ability to manufacture glassware at a reasonable price was one of them.

The French in particular were well known for their part in European perfume history and continue their prideful traditions to the present day. Two notable early French perfumers were Juan Famenias Floris perfumer for Queen Marie Antoinette and Jean-Francois Houbigant who opened A la Corbeille de Fleurs on Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honore (one of the most "fashionable" streets in the world) in Paris in 1775. This later became known as "The House of Houbigant". Due to its popularity it managed to survive the French Revolution and continued to provide products and services to top royalty, kings, queens, etc. as well as anyone else who could afford it!

History books are full of stories about perfumers during this time and perfumers were indeed the major users of essential oils. Floral waters and essential oils were often mixed in with other topics such as distillation and pharmacy. One well known resource of the time was The Complete Distiller by Ambrose Cooper published in 1757.


Beaufort Building - 96 Strand, London - 1827
  Perfumers and perfume shops appeared to spring up all over Europe in a relatively short time. Paris and London likely had the most activity though parts of Germany, Turkey, and Italy were bussing as well. The famous British perfumer, Charles Lillie, was one of the early tradesmen and had his main shop set up in a part of the Beaufort Building on the Strand in London. In 1822 he published his book The British Perfumer and it was an instant success. During this time fashions were becoming quite refined, less expensive, and very popular. This likely fueled the growth of the perfume industry since a dressed up woman would obviously want to smell nice as well.

As demand for perfumes increased this put more and more pressure on importers to provide more essential oils. This continuous pressure was the driving force for larger plantations throughout Europe and increased traffic to the Indian Ocean for exotic spices and materials. The early 1800s were also a time for speculation into the concept of "artificial perfumes". Although this concept of synthetics was not to get into full swing until towards the end of the century there were surely more than a few minds interested in the high profits that synthetics would provide them.

  

Biting at the heals of Linnaeus, Jussieu, Candolle, and Lindley were several chemists and pharmacists who were excited to unlock the mysteries of essential oils and plant chemistry. Their motivations for this work were numerous and included advances in medicine, over the counter drugs, food flavorings, perfume, and scented products. To establish some organization to their endeavors they started publishing journals and other publications of their works and findings. The Chemist and Druggist was one such publication that got its start in 1859 and is still in existence to this day.

 
Established 1859
  Another publication was the Pharmaceutische Rundschau which got its start in 1882 from the efforts of Frederick Hoffmann a German apothecary and pharmacist who had a long history in Germany and moved to New York in 1867. This became an English publication known as Pharmaceutical Review in 1896 when Edward Kremers joined Hoffman as co-editor. The American Journal of Pharmacy founded in 1832 and the American Druggist and Pharmaceutical Record founded in 1871 were two other relevant publications which often covered topics on essential oils.


George William
Septimus Piesse
1820-1882
  Septimus Piesse was well educated and quite creative. His most popular works were The Art of Perfumery published in 1857, Des Odeurs des Parfums et des Cosmetiques published in 1865, and Chimie des Parfums et Fabrication des Essences published in 1897. Although competition for British perfumers during the 19th century was brisk, Piesse and his partner Pierre Francois Lubin and their Laboratory of Flowers did exceptionally well. Their most popular products were scented with Frangipanni - a scent that was likely "engineered" by Piesse since actual Plumeria rubra was likely difficult to procure.

Piesse is often given credit for the concept of notes which were the result of his scent scale to rank the odours of perfumes. He referred to this scale as an "odaphone".

 

 
lmost anyone living in today's world is familiar with Rimmel cosmetics. They can be found in stores around the world. The man behind the name, Eugene Rimmel, learned the perfumery trade from his father, Hyacinthe, at an early age. Their family moved from Paris to London and in his mid teens (1834) Eugene opened his own perfumery house known as the House of Rimmel at 96 Strand street in Westminster, London. By the time he had reached his mid twenties he was a master in his trade and began exercising his own creativity. Although his father had moved to London initially to take a job as a perfumer with another business on Bond street, he eventually left that job and devoted all of his time to working in the House of Rimmel.

 
Eugene Rimmel
1820-1887

To say that Eugene was a man of talent would be an understatement. In addition to being an exquisite perfumer by trade he was also very well known for several other creative pursuits. His written works include The Book of Perfumes and Le Livre des Parfums, Rimmel's Perfumed Almanacs, Recollections of the Paris Exhibition of 1867, and Scented Valentines.


Egyptian Kohl and Bodkin
  One of his most successful pursuits was the creation of the first commercial non-toxic mascara. This creation was inspired from the Kohl and Bodkin which had been used since the time of the Egyptians in various ways in several regions of the world. Eugene's endeavor was so successful that in many languages the word "Rimel" actually means mascara (Dutch, French, Italian, Persian, Portuguese, Romanian, Spanish, Turkish).

The House of Rimmel's main place of business appears to have been at 96 Strand, however, the company did grow with stores in Paris and New York and a flower garden and distillery in Nice. Business was good at 96 Strand until March 19, 1875 when a fire burned the entire building to the ground. Soon after, Rimmel erected a new building and continued business for a short while longer. That location is today the home of the Savoy Hotel.

His biggest advance toward "aromatherapy" was with the creation of his vaporizers which were often found in hospitals and places of infirmary. He is also known for being passionate about using authentic, genuine essential oils and for creating the first commercial mouth rinses and "Toilet Vinegar".

 
96 Strand, Westminster, London

For more images concerning Eugene Rimmel and his works please click here.

 

Plant Illustrators
Otto Karl Berg (1815-1866) and Carl Friedrich Schmidt (1811-1890) were both German botanists with excellent presentation skills. Otto was also active in Pharmacology and became an associate professor at the University of Berlin in 1849. Carl was a highly skilled artist who was well known for drawing and lithographing plant illustrations.

Together they created Darstellung und Beschreibung samtlicher in der Pharmacopoea Borusica aufgefuhrten offizinellen Gewachse (a survey of plants used in the Prussian pharmacopoeia) and had it published in 1853. A couple of their illustrations can be found in this site.

 
Lavender
 
Sassafras
 
Cardamom
 

Hermann Adolf Kohler was a German botanist who lived from 1834 to 1879. He had become skilled at creating chromolithography illustrations. After his death Franz Eugen Kohler, a German medical doctor, collected Hermann's work and prepared it for publishing. The collective work is known as Kohler's Medizinal-Pflanzen, translated as Kohler's Medicinal Plants. It was published as 3 main volumes, Volume I in 1887, Volume II in 1890, and Volume III in 1896. The first 3 volumes showcase color illustrations for 283 common medicinal plants. A fourth, lesser known, volume was published in 1914 and contains another 29 color illustrations. Many of these lithographs can be found in this website.  

Published in 1883
 
Lavender
 
Pine
  Kohler's work is rare and most copies now reside in large libraries, museums, or private collections. (To find a physical copy try www.worldcat.org)

The Roots of Essential Oil Ambiguities
In 1867 a curious thing happened in the world of essential oils. The official concept of "perfume for cosmetics" appeared at the Paris International Exhibition - "Exposition Universelle". For the first time perfumes, scented gloves, and soaps where clearly displayed separately from medicinal plant essences. This was quite a big deal since the exposition began on April 1, 1867 and closed on October 31, 1867 and was visited by over 9,000,000 people!   This was really the beginning of the division of scent for health and scent just for the sake of scent without regards to health. In my mind this was the beginning of "chemical-therapy" aka "chema-therapy" (heavy on the chemicals and light on the "therapy") which we find ourselves surrounded with on a daily basis: soaps in public restrooms, ubiquitous "air fresheners", "hand sanitizers", commercial toothpastes, shampoos, dish soaps, laundry detergents, etc, etc. These chemical laden products are a world apart from authentic, genuine plant oils!!

Both before and after the Paris Expo the chemists were hard at work trying to create a "synthetic scent" and some sources suggest that they were successful sometime between 1862 and 1868. According to one source, coumarin was isolated as early as 1868 by the English chemist William Henry Perkin. By 1874 artificial vanillin was being created in a lab by the German scientists Ferdinand Tiemann and Wilhelm Haarmann. Work in synthetic scents continued relatively quietly, almost secretively, for a few years until about 1880. That year The House of Houbigant passed part ownership to Paul Parquet. Paul had a "new vision" for perfume and moved the company to the western Paris suburbs in Neuilly-sur-Seine. The new manufacturing facility was equipped with high-tech labs and the capability to create new "synthetic scents" likely starting with synthetic coumarin. This chemical made its debut as an ingredient in Fougere Royal in 1882, a perfume that any cosmetics agent worth their weight in chemicals knowns about! By 1888 artificial musk (trinitro-butyl-toluene & Trinitro-butyl-xylene) had been invented by Albert Baur and the following year he obtained a patent for it. From there designer (synthetic) scents began gaining ground and the chemists were off and running... mountains of money awaiting them...
(Industry of Artificial Perfumes, Justin Dupont, August 1901)

Its important to note that the concept of "brand extravagance" emerged during this time. Since synthetics were much less expensive than genuine plant oils, theoretically the prices of perfumes should have gone down during this time. To counter that phenomena and reap high profits perfumers started relying much more on the concepts of image and branding and uniqueness and advertising. Perhaps this was part of the "new vision" that Paul Parquet was suggesting. By some estimates today (2013), the actual liquid perfume itself accounts for about 2% of the total price of the product (a bottle of perfume) which includes marketing, packaging, and profits. For a more detailed look at the perfume industry during the nineteenth century consider From Industry to Luxury: French Perfume in the Nineteenth Century and Le parfumeur millionnaire.

From this time forward, the lines would blur. Essential oils were no longer innocent.
Perfumers were no longer reliable sources for authentic, genuine, un-adulterated essential oils and neither were pharmacists or apothicaries necessarily. Many perfumers were reluctant to accept synthetics into their trade but eventually after a few years economics forced them to - at least partially. After all, if The House of Houbigant could obtain a synthetic version of Violet oil for 90% less than the price of the real thing and the scent seemed the same... how could a different perfume house still pay full price for authentic Violet oil and still be competitive? So, the idea of "Therapeutic Perfumes", a concept that had existed for thousands of years even if unrecognized, had begun its demise.
And with it, I would at least suspect, began the rise of female breast cancer - for after all, by far the most absorbent human tissue is the female breast and when women start patting synthetic chemicals on them once a day... well... what do you expect? Yes, women have patted perfumes on their chests for thousands of years, but only patted chemical laden perfumes (and soaps, shampoos, and lotions) on their chests for about 150 years... but what chemical company is going to explain that to you? They race for the cure while ladies race to the store to buy more of their product...  

The concept of synthetics was an insidious one which took time to integrate itself. Some of the last classic works on perfumery were written during this time - that is to say, works that did not speak of synthetics. Examples include Perfumery and Kindred Arts: A Comprehensive Treatise on Perfumery by R.S. Cristiani published in 1877 and Perfumes and their Preparation by George William Askinson published in 1892.

Industrial Chemical Machines - Start Your Engines!
By the late 1800s science had its hands fully into the matter and synthetic substances were sprouting up everywhere.


W.J. Bush & Co. - Works Hackney, UK - 1888 (est. 1885)
  One of the major chemical giants was started by William John Bush in 1851 in The City of London. Although his operation did not start out as a chemical plant, it did eventually grow into one. In the beginning he prepared essences, herbs, tinctures, and spices but he eventually gravitated more toward flavourings for drinks and sodas and by 1880 business was booming. Because of this he moved to Ash Grove, Hackney, London in 1885. In 1889 W.J. Bush died but his business continued in the hands of his son, William Ernest Bush and then upon his death in 1903 to James Mortimer Bush. By 1917 the company had become a major pharmaceutical player with factories in Australia, Canada, France, Italy, Russia, and the U.S. By that time it had become well known for producing chloroform and aspirin as well as perfumes and essential oils for use in flavouring foods and drinks.

 
W.J. Bush & Co. - U.S. Branch Office
New York - 1910
 
 

Since demand was so high the concept of genuine, un-adulterated essential oils was lost. The flavour industry did not require therapeutic properties in their essential oils and early on the distilleries had become geared toward quantity not quality.

After significant growth and a couple of mergers the company evolved into Bush Boake Allen Ltd. headquartered in London in 1966.

 
Hermann Traugott Fritzsche Jr.
1843-1906
Business Magnate
 
Karl Fritzsche
1871-1944
President
  Schimmel & Co. - Miltitz, Germany
The Schimmel company had it's humble beginnings in Leipzig, Germany in 1829. During the next 70 years the business saw great success. By the 1880s the company owned and harvested several large rose fields West of Leipzig. A few years later they established a large rose processing facility there to extract rose oil from the crops. The facility became the start of a small village named Miltitz located about 8km west of Leipzig and the company eventually moved their entire enterprise to that location in 1901. The Miltitz site had facilities for textile fabrics, and essential oils. It also had exquisite homes and offices, large factories, a post office, a kitchen, rail access, horse stables, essential oil distillation facilities, a state of art laboratory, and fields for flower crops.

As the company grew more and more countryside plantations were purchased, each with beautiful homes for the administrators.

The Schimmel project became increasingly successful with resources spanning the globe. By 1871 they had opened a main office at 62 Cedar Street in New York City which was known by the name of Fritzsche Brothers. Scientific research into the properties and components of essential oils occurred on a massive scale at the Miltitz location and systematic writings of their findings began appearing around 1880 in the form of semi-annual reports.    

The Schimmel Company / Fritzsche Brothers ran their business very successfully for several years. Finally in 1963 Fritzsche Brothers and Dodge & Olcott merged and carried on their business until 1980 when they were bought by BASF. Then in 1990 BASF sold Fritzsche, Dodge & Olcott to Givaudan. To learn more about the history of Fritzche Brothers in New York please see a Testimonial to Frederick Henry Leonhardt

  Today Miltitz is home to Bell Flavors & Fragrances (est. 1912) which has their offices located just north of the old Schimmel factories. They deal in flavor, fragrance, aroma chemicals, and essential oil industries. Although I would be hesitant to purchase essential oils for use in aromatherapy from them it is important to note that they are the owners of the Schimmel Library in Leipzig which contains over 30,000 books and periodicals related to essential oils. The library is open to the public upon written request.

 
Der Fabrik und Kolonie Schimmel u. Co.
Miltitz bei Leipzig - Germany - 1901


New York City branch est. 1871

Circulars of Information 1894

Catalogue of Essential Oils 1894

Die Jubelfeier der Schimmel & Co. 1829-1929

Schimmel 1936 Price List

The Essential Oils - Vol 2
        by Ernest Guenther

 

Semi-Annual Reports
 
1892 - October
1893 - April - (German)
1893 - October - (German)
1894 - April - (German)
1894 - October - (German)
1895 - April - (German)
1895 - October - (German)
1896 - April - (German)
1896 - October - (German)
1897 - April - (German)
1897 - October - (German)
1898 - April - (German)
1898 - October - (German)
1899 - April - (German)
1899 - October - (German)
1900 - April - (German)
1900 - October - (German)
1901 - April - (German)
1901 - October - (German)
1902 - April
1902 - October
1903 - April
1903 - October
1904 - April
1904 - October
  1905 - April - (German)
1905 - October - (German)
1906 - April
1906 - October
1907 - April
1907 - October
1908 - April
1908 - November
1909 - April
1909 - October
1910 - October
1911 - April
1911 - October
1912 - April
1912 - October
1913 - April
1914 - April
1914 - Oct/Apr
1915 - October
1916 - Apr/Oct
1917 - Apr/Oct
1918 - Apr/Oct
1919 - Apr/Oct
1920 - Apr/Oct
1921 - Apr/Oct
1922 - Apr/Oct

 

Lageplan - Der Fabrik und Kolonie
Schimmel u. Co. Miltitz bei Leipzig

   

Schimmel Plantation Homes

   
 
       



The South of France
Any history of aromatherapy must certainly mention the French Riviera - home of the flowers which yield the sweetest perfumes. Grasse, Nice, Cannes, Antibes, and the surrounding countryside have all played their parts in the history of perfume, absolutes, and essential oil production. The area was a place for leather production in the 1600s and eventually folks longed for a leather possessing a pleasant smell. This was the beginning of the scented glove industry and with it, the beginning of the essential oil industry in the south of France. Oil producing plants which have been cultivated there include Olives, Cassie, Lavender, Mignonette, Lily of the Valley, Tuberose, Jonquil, Heliotrope, Jasmine, Roses, Mimosa, Orange Blossom, Violets, and Ganet (Broom). At the end of the 19th century demand was booming in southern France and crops commonly produced over 10 million pounds of aromatic plants annually. During that time dozens of small family businesses existed and produced essential oils almost exclusively for the perfume trade. An article written by Jacques Boyer in 1903, The Perfume Trade, contains a few photos from one famous business; Roure-Bertrand Fils.

Although scientists were hard at work searching for ways to create artificial scents for everything, scents for Rose, Violet, and Mignonette proved to be quite elusive. As the 20th century unfolded most perfumes made a gradual transition from consisting of mostly genuine essential oils to consisting mostly of synthetic chemicals.

 
 
Today Grasse has one International Museum of Perfumery, including a small greenhouse of flowers, which opened in 1989. The cost of admission is inexpensive and they don't make any big push to sell you something while you are there which is a bit refreshing. Grasse is also home to about 8 perfume houses with three large ones drawing in most of the tourists. The big three rely heavily on synthetics in their perfume trade.

 
Parfumerie Fragonard, named after the famous painter Jean-Honore Fragonard, was founded in 1926 and has guided tours of their factory and laboratories and also of their Musée de la Parfumerie. They have a museum in Paris as well. Fragonard is one of the last family owned perfume factories in the Grasse region and they rely mostly on tourism to sell their products.  
  Parfumerie Galimard located in the southern part of Grasse also has guided tours of their Musée de la Parfumerie and offers a 2-hour long course of instruction on perfumery in their Le Studio des Fragrances. This business was actually one of the founders of the Grasse perfume industry and began as a supplier of scented gloves.

  Parfumerie Molinard is a family owned operation founded in 1849. In 1900 the business expanded acquiring a newer building which had been designed by Gustave Eiffel explaining its aesthetic appeal. This perfumerie also has guided tours and a small museum, however its most lavish asset is its exquisite showroom. In 1921 it created the world's first solid perfume, "Concréta". Molinard is well known for its unique bottles and creative flair.

Unfortunately, many of the flower fields that once existed in the Grasse region are now covered with concrete slabs and flower production is often outsourced to places like Egypt and Morocco. They paved paradise and put a parking lot... ♬   Although flower fields are still grown in Grasse the competition with "civilization" has been stronger in recent years. Fields of Tuberose in particular are a bit difficult to find today. Of all of the nearby cities Nice has the best flower markets.

 

  One source for essential oils which Europeans and Americans were certainly aware of by 1890 was Merck's. At the time that company was a widely known supplier of pharmaceutical grade chemicals and drugs. It was founded in Darmstadt, Germany in 1668. I am uncertain as to which year essential oils started to appear in the Merck's Index, however, they are certainly prevalent in the Merck's Index of 1889, pgs 100-102.


René Gattefossé
1881-1950
   The Popular Frenchman
Louis Gattefossé was a French chemist and successful businessman who created the Gattefossé Group in 1880, one of the most well known French chemical and perfume entities at that time. One year later he had a son, René.

By 1907 René had become thoroughly involved with chemistry and perfume, and took particular interest in the study of plant essences including their therapeutic effects. He had a strong passion for these topics and was highly devoted to his work. Three years later while working in the lab he had a serious accident and ran out of the building on fire! After extinguishing the flames he realized that he needed a quick remedy for the gas gangrene which was rapidly developing on his hands. His knowledge of plant essences gave him the foresight to apply lavender to his burns and he immediately went back into the lab where he submerged his hands into a vat of lavender oil. The gas gangrene reaction ceased immediately and the next day René's hands began the healing process. His experience with this event undoubtedly further fueled his passion for his work.

In 1918 René was actively involved with the creation of a volatile antiseptic consisting mainly of Sage oil. His work was widely received in hospitals and clinics making him further known for his work with essential oils.

During René's studies he learned that when essential oils were mixed in the correct proportions they often created a powerful synergistic effect. By this we mean that the mixture of the oils has a much more potent therapeutic effect than the sum of the therapeutic effects of each individual oil. As his research progressed in this area it became clear that specific combinations of oils in specific amounts created very powerful results. Most authors of aromatherapy today give credit to René for being the first to investigate this phenomenon. René is also often credited as coining the term "Aromatherapie" and he is often referred to as "The Father of Aromatherapie" (though a brief study of history might give reason to rethink this...).

Likely because of his childhood environment and his passion for learning, René Gattefossé grew to become a devoted French chemist who published many works in his lifetime. One of his most popular works today, Aromathérapie - les huiles essentielles hormones végétales, was published in 1937 and soon thereafter translated into English. Its widely known now as Gattefossé's Aromatherapy.

Many common day authors in the field of aromatherapy have made references to Gattefossé's Aromatherapy, however, for years the actual book seemed difficult, if not impossible to find. For a few years there even seemed to be some speculation that the book didn't even exist!

All of this changed in 1993 when the book was translated into English and republished with the help of a well known modern day aromatherapist, Robert Tisserand.

 
Gattefossé's
Aromatherapy
1937
 
Gattefossé's
Aromatherapy
1993

Mr. Gattefossé was as much a writer as he was a chemist. The following is a list of his written works.

French Title  Date  English Title (Translated Title)
Guide Pratique et Formulaire du Parfumeur Moderne   1906   Practical Guide and Modern Form of the Perfumer
Formulaire de Parfumerie et de Cosmétologie (1st édition)   1911   Form of Perfumery and Cosmetology (1st edition)
Culture et Industrie des Plantes Aromatiques et des Plantes Médicinales de Montagne   1917   Culture and Industry of Aromatic Plants and Medicinal Plants of Mountains
Agenda du Chimiste-Parfumeur   1918   Agenda of the Chemist-Perfumer
Propriétés Bactéricides de quelques Huiles Essentielles   1919   Bacteriocidal Properties of a few Essential Oils
Formulaire de Parfumerie et de Cosmétologie (2nd édition)   1920   Form of Perfumery and Cosmetology (2nd edition)
Nouveaux Parfums Synthetiques   1921   New Synthetic Fragrances
Formulary du parfumeur Parisien   1923   Formulary of the Parisian Perfumer
Le rôle Physiologique des Parfums (en collaboration avec D. Tamisier)   1924   The Physiological Role of Perfumes (in collaboration with D. Tamisier)
Relations entre les Fonctions Chimiques et les Propriétés Physiologiques de Corps Odorants   1924   Relationship between Chemical Functions and Physiological Properties of Body Odor
Actions Physiologiques des Solutions Aromatiques   1925   Physiological Actions of Aromatic Solutions
Distillation des Plantes Aromatiques et des Parfums   1926   Distillation of Aromatic Plants and Fragrances
Les Essences en Thérapeutique (La Parfumerie Moderne)   1926   Therapeutic Essences (The Modern Perfumery)
Valeur Thérapeutique de l'essence de Lavande (La Parfumerie Moderne)   1926   Therapeutic Value of the Essence of Lavender (The Modern Perfumery)
Cicatrisation Rapide des Plaies par les Huiles Essentielles   1927   Rapid Healing of Wounds by the Essential Oils
Formulaire du Chimiste-Parfumeur et du Savonnier   1932   Form of the Chemist-Perfumer and of the Soap Maker
Emplois Therapeutiques de l'essence de Lavande   1932   Therapeutic Employment of the Essence of Lavender
Emplois des Huiles Essentielles comme Bactéricides   1932   Jobs of Essential Oils as Bactericides
Rôle Antiseptique de la Lavande (La Parfumerie Moderne)   1932   Role of the Lavender Antiseptic (The Modern Perfumery)
La Lavande en Thérapeutique (La Parfumerie Moderne)   1932   Lavender in Therapeutic (The Modern Perfumery)
Les Emplois Thérapeutiques de l'essence de Lavande (La Parfumerie Moderne)   1932   The Jobs of the Therapeutic Essence of Lavender (The Modern Perfumery)
L'essence de Pin et ses Propriétés Bactéricides (La Parfumerie Moderne)   1932   The Essence of Pine and its Bactericidal Properties (The Modern Perfumery)
Le pouvoir antiseptique du terpophéne (La Parfumerie Moderne)   1933   The Power of the Antiseptic Terpophene
Les Désinfectants à Base d'huile de Pin   1935   The Disinfectant Basis of Pine Oil
Produits de beauté   1936   Beauty Products
Aromatherapie; les Huiles Essentielles Hormones Vegetales   1937   Aromatherapy; the Essential Oils Plant Hormones
Antiseptiques essentiels   1938   Essential Antiseptics
Cosmetica Moderna   1945   Modern Cosmetics
Pommades et Emulsions Pharmaceutiques   1946   Pomades and Pharmaceutical Emulsions
Formulaire de Parfumerie et de Cosmétologie (3rd édition)   1950   Form of Perfumery and Cosmetology (3rd edition)

René also published a trade journal, La Parfumerie Moderne (The Modern Perfumery) from 1908 until 1950.

Download Movie         Gattefosse Movie Link

  Oils A-B      Oils C-E      Oils F-J      Oils K-N      Oils O-R      Oils S-Z  
Home
  Reference SourcesLast Update ☆ ~~ Aug 20, 2012   Home

  ~  The Recommended Fine Print  ~
All information, suggestions, and opinions shown on this website are for educational purposes only and do not replace
medical advice nor are they intended to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent any disease or health problems.
I am NOT a doctor and never, ever want to be one!         I am not responsible for any of your health choices!
Information given here has not been evaluated by the US FDA nor by any other U.S. governing body to the
best of my knowledge nor does it replace the advice of any licensed health-care professional.
Your health is your responsibility!!   Peace out.   ~ Jonn ☆ ~~