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What's in the bottle?
To be clear from the beginning, it's important to note that essential oils are often manipulated by perfume, pharmacutical, and food industries. This manipulation is done simply for the sake of business needs within those industries. In other words, businesses stand to make a lot of money by altering plant essences to suit their needs. For the purposes of our discussion we are only concerned with genuine and authentic essential oils. By "genuine" we mean oils that have not been chemically manipulated nor altered in any way. By "authentic" we mean oils that come from only the plant stated.

Genuine, authentic essential oils are a mixture of 2 distinct plant components.
 1. Plants create chemical structures (carbon chains) varying in size via biosynthesis. These structures are generally referred to as "terpene hydrocarbons" or just "terpenes".
 2. Plants metabolize amino acids to produce proteins. Some by-products from this process are known as "phenolic residues".

All genuine, authentic essential oils consist almost exclusively of a mixture of terpenes and phenolic residues.

An Attempt to Catorgorize Nature
In the 1930's Rene-Maurice Gattefosse wrote a book named "Gattefosse's Aromatherapie". In his work he established 6 "functional groups". The groupings were based on simple chemical structures.

Functional Groups
Alcohols        Aldehydes 
  Substances in this catagory are energizing, non-irritating, and non-toxic.
 
  Substances in this catagory are anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, sedative, and often skin irritants.
 
 
Esters        Ketones 
  Substances in this catagory are anti-spasmodic, anti-fungal, and relaxing.
 
  Substances in this catagory vary from "safe" to "toxic". Higher doses of toxic elements, such as Thujone, have been known to cause seizures, convulsions, and abortions.
 
 
Oxides 
    - or -    
      Phenols 
  Substances in this catagory have varied characteristics.
 
  Substances in this catagory are skin irritants and, with continued use, can be toxic to the liver. Its best to use oils with high concentrations of phenols for only short periods of time so that the liver can have a chance to recover.

Today we have a better understanding of plant chemistry and have broadened the catagory which Rene called "Phenols". To be more acurate, Phenols are only one subset of many "Phenolic Residues".

Phenolic Residues - Plant amino acid metabolism byproducts
 Phenols -- 6 Carbon atom Benzene ring structure (as shown above)
  As stated above - Substances in this catagory are skin irritants and, with continued use, can be toxic to the liver. Its best to use oils with high concentrations of phenols for only short periods of time so that the liver can have a chance to recover.
 Phenolic Acids -- Benzene ring structure + 1 additional Carbon atom (structure varies)
 Phenylacetic Acids -- Benzene ring structure + 2 additional Carbon atoms (structure varies)
 Chromones -- Benzene ring structure + 3 additional Carbon atoms (structure varies)
 Coumarins -- Benzene ring structure + 3 additional Carbon atoms (structure varies)
  Essential oils containing these substances are known for being sweet smelling, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, causing photosensitivity, thinning blood, and being toxic to the liver with continued use. If used in moderation these might thin blood and reduce swelling, or dissolve blood clots. If used excessively, which is done in common rat poison, these might thin blood excessively or lead to internal bleeding.
Important Note: Coumarins likely do not exist normally in healthy plant leaves or grasses. If some plant’s leaves are damaged, however, Coumarins are instantaneously produced as the plant responds to the damage. This is why a patch of grass does not really smell until a few minutes after it has been cut. Once freshly cut, the plant responds to the damage, Coumarins are produced, and their scent reaches our noses.
If we are harvesting German Chamomile or Clary Sage or some other plant which can have a production of Coumarins, we need to be aware of this chemical reaction. If the German Chamomile is cut and then left to sit for a day or two before distilling the essential oil from it, then the plant matter is going to have more time to produce Coumarins. Perhaps more Coumarins are desired by the distiller because a sweeter scent will be produced. In this example, the distiller will get exactly what they want. If, however, we are more concerned with the adverse effects of Coumarins such as photosensitivity, then it would be better to cut the plants and immediately throw them into the hot distilling plant so the plants will have less time to produce Coumarins.
Furthermore, as the German Chamomile plant (for example) is growing, if it is constantly being damaged in some way, the plant is going to spend its whole life producing Coumarins. This may also have an effect on the resulting distilled essential oil.
 Hydroxycinnamic Acids -- Benzene ring structure + 3 additional Carbon atoms (structure varies)
 Isocoumarins -- Benzene ring structure + 3 additional Carbon atoms (structure varies)
 Phenylpropenes -- Benzene ring structure + 3 additional Carbon atoms (structure varies)
  These occur sporadically in essential oils.



A Closer Look at Terpenes
The basic building block of terpenes is isoprene. An isoprene model follows:

Isoprene   (C5H8)

 Two isoprenes bound together have
the following chemical notation: (C5H8)2
This notation can be simplified to C10H16

Two isoprenes bound together (C5H8)2 creates the foundation for a "monoterpene". --  Low viscosity -- Found in nearly all essential oils in significant amounts except Violet oil.
Three isoprenes bound together (C5H8)3 creates the foundation for a "sesquiterpene". --  Medium viscosity -- Thousands are known to exist in nature -- Found in essential oils, balsams
Four isoprenes bound together (C5H8)4 creates the foundation for a "diterpene". --  High viscosity -- Found in few essential oils only in small quantities, balsams, resins, plant growth hormones
Six isoprenes bound together (C5H8)6 creates the foundation for a "triterpene". --  High viscosity -- Foundation for some resins, steroids, homones, cholesterol, etc.

Essential oils are stored in plants inside microscopic cellular membranes. These membranes are generally ruptured by heating them, or by smashing them via mechanical means (Please see Extraction Methods).

To the right is a general example of a common process for extracting essential oils from plants with a steam distillation unit.

 
There are several ways in which oils are extracted and several factors to think about when doing so. To start with, each plant will have an "ideal harvest time" when its oils are most fragrant and therapeutic. In a perfect world the plants should only be taken at that time. Once the plants are gathered they should usually be rinsed off with fresh, clean water before continuing. After washing, the extraction method of choice should be performed to obtain the oil. In many cases some of the plant’s oils will be sensitive to heat so extractions methods which use heat will likely produce a slightly different type of oil then a non-heat-using method would. That being said, the contents in peppermint oil extracted via steam distillation could quite likely be slightly different from the contents in peppermint oil extracted via the phytonic process, even if the peppermint plants were all harvested at the same ideal time from the same place, washed with the same water, etc.

Being aware of subtle differences in the oil production process, it should be obvious that specific amounts of oil constituents found in, say, peppermint oil, can vary from company to company (and even vary within the same company from year to year). In some cases those amounts can even vary as widely as 40% - 50%.

Nature's Synergistic Mastery
Finally, its very important to realize that an essential oil is a balanced mixture of several parts that all work together by natural design. An essential oil has to be looked at as the sum of its parts. So, isolating a single component and then saying that single component is "good", "bad", or "harmful" is perhaps not that useful. In the words of David Stewart: "The chemistry of essential oils can only be understood in the whole, not by separation of its constituents and analysis of its parts. The aerodynamics of an airplane can only be understood by flying the craft, not by disassembly and analysis of its separate parts." At first glance it may seem like his statement is a little paradoxical - what are we doing then looking at the parts of an essential oil? However, in the context of his book, The Chemistry of Essential Oils Made Simple it seems to really make sense. I believe his main point here is that we can learn a great deal by studying the parts of an essential oil but we must always remember that all of those parts are working together. Scientists who remove one part and then feed it to rats in much more concentrated doses and then watch the rat die are perhaps not looking at the bigger picture... It's perhaps similar to isolating the salt in bread, quadrupling the amount of the salt, feeding the salt to the rat, and then deducting that since the salt raised the rat's blood pressure to high levels, then we can say that bread is dangerous and is very hypertensive...

Table of Essential Oil Consistituents
Constituent Functional Group Effect Found In:

 Acorenone  Ketone (Sesquiterpene)    
Calamus Root



 Alephatic aldehyde  Aldehyde    
Carrot Seed



 Anethole  Phenol    
Anise (Aniseed) (70%)
Anise (Star)
 Fennel
Myrtle (Anise) (90%)
 
 
 Notes About Anethole: Anethole is the methyl ether of oestrone. Oestrone is produced in the ovaries and is one of the main hormones responsible for balanced menstration.



 Apiol
      C12H14O4
  Phenol    
Parsley Seed



 β-Asarone  Phenol (Ether)    
Calamus Root
 
 Notes About β-Asarone: β-Asarone has been shown in lab experiments to cause mutations in human liver cells and human lymphocyte cells. I am unaware of any cases where β-Asarone from an essential oil has caused cancer in a living person, however.



 Atlantone  Ketone    
Cedarwood (Atlas)



 Azulene
      C10H8
    anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial  
Chamomile (German)
Chamomile (Roman)
 Yarrow (2.2%-3.5%)
 
 Notes About Azulene: Azulene is blue in color and was theoretically first discovered in the 1600's with the distillation of German Chamomile. (Azul is Spanish for blue)   The compound was "officially" named by Septimus Piesse of France in 1863. Azulene is said to have anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties, is calming to the skin, and assists in cell regeneration. Azulene is seen in Roman Chamomile just after it is distilled, however, the blue color fades quickly afterward due to chemical synthesis.



 Benzoic acid      
Balsam de Peru
Benzoin
 Ylang Ylang



 Benzyl benzoate  Ester    
Balsam de Peru
Carnation
 



 Benzyl benzoate acetate  Ester    
Jasmine



 Benzyl cinnamate  Ester    
Balsam de Peru



 Bergapten
      C12H8O4
    phototoxic (usually)  
Angelica
Bergamot
 
 
 Notes About Bergapten: Bergapten (aka Bergaptene) is a phototoxic furocoumarin that produces abnormally dark pigmentation and reddening of the surrounding skin after exposure to UV-rays (sunlight, tanning bed, discotheque UV lighting, etc.) Think of Bergapten as a sort of miniature UV-ray magnifying glass. Once an oil containing Bergapten has been applied to the skin it will be quickly absorbed and will not wash away with soap and water. It will be metabolically transformed after 12 hours, however, and is no longer a concern after that.

In some cases oils containing a furocoumarin such as Bergapten are not phototoxic. This is because there are other components in the oil which counter-out the phototoxic effects. Myrrh would be a good example of this as it contains plenty of furocoumarins but is not at all phototoxic. This is a perfect example of Nature's Synergistic Mastery

So, be sure to check the cautions list for each oil to determine photoxicity or simply click here. Info Source - (The Chemistry of Essential Oils Made Simple: God's Love Manifest in Molecules  pgs 379-383)




 β-Bisabolene  Sesquiterpene    
Ginger (6.2%-7.7%)
Lemon (0.1%-0.8%)
 



 α-Bisabolol  Alcohol (Sesquiterpene)  anti-inflammatory  
Chamomile (German) (1%)
Lavender (English) (0%-0.2%)
 



 Bisabolone oxide  Oxide    
Chamomile (German) (2%)



 Borneol  Alcohol (Monoterpene)    
Cardamom
Citronella
Clary Sage
 Ginger (0%-1.3%)
Lavender (English) (0.7%-2.6%)
Lavender (Spike) (1%-1.6%)
 Rosemary
Spikenard
 
 Notes About Borneol: Borneol readily oxidizes into Camphor. Borneol is a natural insect repellent and in high concentrations becomes a skin and respiratory irritant. (Wikipedia  Borneol)



 Bornyl acetate  Ester    
Pine (Scotch) (0.2%-0.8%)
Spikenard
 Yarrow (0%-2.6%)



 Boswellic acid      
Frankincense
 
 Notes About Boswellic acid: Pharmaceutical types often refer to this substance as 5-Loxin. Boswellic acid and 5-Loxin are the same thing.



 Bulsenol      



 γ-Cadinene  Sesquiterpene    
Geranium (0%-1%)
Vetiver
 



 δ-Cadinene      
Pine (Scotch) (1.7%-1.8%)



 Camphene  Phenylpropane    
Blue Tansy
Chamomile (Roman) (1%)
Clary Sage
 Frankincense (0.4%-0.6%)
Ginger (6.2%-8.5%)
Lime
 Pine (Scotch) (1.7%-3.4%)
Spearmint



 γ-Camphene      
Melissa (0.2%-0.6%)



 Camphor
      C10H16O
  Ketone    
Camphor (White) (50%)
Chamomile (Moroccan)
Lavender (English) (0.2%-3.3%)
 Lavender (Spike) (11.2%-13.2%)
Rosemary
Sage
 Yarrow (1%-4.4%)
 
 Notes About Camphor: Camphor is used to repel moths, insects, snakes and reptiles. It's used for embalming, and also is a common ingredient in fireworks. It is said to release fumes which form a coating on near-by objects which is a rust-preventative - some mechanics keep camphor in tool chests to keep tools from rusting. Camphor is easily absorbed into the skin and has a cooling effect (Rubefacient). It has slight anesthetic and anti-microbial properties. (Wikipedia  Camphor)



 α-Camphorene  Diterpene    
Camphor (White)



 δ-3-Carene      
Black Pepper (10%-22%)
Galbanum (10%)
 



 Carotal      
Carrot Seed



 Carvacrol  Phenol    
Oregano
Thyme
 



 Carveol
      C10H16O
  Alcohol (Terpene)    
Spearmint



 Carvone
      C10H14O
  Ketone    
Caraway
Dill Seed
 Peppermint
Spearmint (51%-65%)
 



 α-Caryophyllene    Please see α-Humulene  



 β-Caryophyllene
      C15H24
  Sesquiterpene  anti-inflammatory  
Basil (5.3%-10.5%)
Black Pepper (7.3%-33%)
Cinnamon Leaf (6.9%-11.1%)
Clove Bud (3.6%-17.8%)
Eucalyptus (Citriodora) (0.9%-1.6%)
Frankincense (2.3%-4.4%)
Galbanum (0.5%)
Geranium (0%-1.9%)
 Ginger
Helichrysum
Hop Flower (5.1%-14.5%)
Lavender (English) (1.9%-2.8%)
Lavender (Spike) (1.2%-1.8%)
Lemon (0%-0.3%)
Melissa (4.6%-24.6%)
Myrrh (0.4%-0.5%)
 Oregano (5%)
Palmarosa (0.9%-2.5%)
Perilla (3%)
Pine (Scotch) (1.5%-2.1%)
Rosemary (0.1%-8.3%)
Tamala (25%)
Vitex (39%)
Yarrow (3.2%-12.8%)
 



 Caryophyllene oxide  Oxide    
Melissa (1.1%-1.3%)



 Chamazulene  Phenylpropane  anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial  
Blue Tansy
Chamomile (German)
 Helichrysum
Yarrow
 
 
 Notes About Chamazulene: Chamazulene is well known for being beneficial to the skin, anti-inflammatory and is also said to be an anti-allergen. (The Chemistry of Essential Oils Made Simple: God's Love Manifest in Molecules  pg. 283)



 1,8 Cineole  Oxide  anti-microbial   
Basil
Bay Laurel
Cajeput
Cardamom
Carrot Seed
Chamomile (Roman) (0%-0.2%)
Coriander
Eucalyptus (Citriodora)
Eucalyptus (Dives)
Eucalyptus (Globulus)
 Eucalyptus (Radiata) (77%-95%)
Fennel
Galanga
Ginger (1.1%-5.8%)
Kunzea
Lavender (English) (1.2%-3.7%)
Lavender (Spike) (23.9%-28.4%)
Lime
May Chang (0.2%)
Peppermint (4.3%-6.9%)
 Rambiazana (47%)
Ravensara
Rosemary
Rosemary (Borneol)
Rosemary (Cineol)
Rosemary (Verbenon)
Sage
Tea Tree (0%-5.4%)
Yarrow (3.9%-22.1%)
 
 Notes About 1,8 Cineole: 1,8 Cineole is one of the most commonly occuring oxides in nature.

1,8 Cineole is also known as: 1,8 Cineol, Cineole, Cineol, Cajeputol, Eucalyptol, Eucalyptole, Limonene oxide, 1,8-epoxy-p-menthane, 1,8-oxido-p-menthane, and 1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo2,2,2octane




 Cinnamic acid      
Benzoin
Cinnamon Leaf
 
 
 Notes About Cinnamic acid: Strong Skin Irritant



 Cinnamic aldehyde  Aldehyde    
Cinnamon Leaf



 Citral
      C10H16O
  Aldehyde  anti-microbial   
Bergamot (0.3%)
Ginger (0.4%-10.7%)
Lemon (1.5%-2.7%)
Lemongrass (73.8%-75.5%)
Lime (4%)
 Manuka (Lemon)
May Chang (68.3%-92.2%)
Melissa (17.2%-74.2%)
Myrtle (Lemon)
Palmarosa (0.2%-4.2%)
 
 
 Notes About Citral: Citral is either Geranial (aka Citral A) or Neral (aka Citral B) or a mixture of both Geranial and Neral. Citral is also known as Geranialdehyde.

Citral has a strong lemon scent and strong anti-microbial properties.

"Citral can cause a rise in ocular tension, which would be dangerous in cases of glaucoma." -- Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals pg. 146
In addition, Citral has been shown to cause prostate gland enlargement in animal studies.




 Citronellal  Aldehyde    
Citronella
Clary Sage
 Eucalyptus (Citriodora) (62%-79.3%)
Manuka (Lemon)
 Melissa (5.9%-9.2%)



 Citronellol  Alcohol (Terpene)    
Clary Sage
Eucalyptus (Citriodora) (4.6%-8.8%)
 Geranium (22.1%-32.4%)
Melissa (0%-1%)
 Rose Otto



 Citronellyl acetate  Ester    
Eucalyptus (Citriodora) (0.4%-2%)
Geranium (0%-0.3%)
 



 Citronellyl butyrate  Ester    
Eucalyptus (Citriodora) (0%-1.5%)
Geranium (0%-0.6%)
 



 Citronellyl formate  Ester    
Geranium (6.6%-14.2%)



 α-Copanene      
Black Pepper (2.3%-2.7%)
Frankincense (0.6%-1.3%)
 



 Coriandrol  Alcohol (Terpene)    
Coriander



 Coumarines      
Angelica (2%)
Bergamot
Chamomile (German)
Cinnamon Leaf
Clary Sage
 Fennel
Galbanum
Grapefruit
Lavender (English)
Lemon
 Mandarin (Green)
Peppermint
Sage
Tagetes
 
 Notes About Coumarines: Coumarins likely do not exist normally in healthy plant leaves or grasses. If some plant’s leaves are damaged, however, Coumarins are instantaneously produced as the plant responds to the damage. This is why a patch of grass does not really smell until a few minutes after it has been cut. Once freshly cut, the plant responds to the damage, Coumarins are produced, and their scent reaches our noses.

Coumarines are chemicals derived from plants which are often thought to have anti-coagulant blood thinning properties. Coumarin by itself is a prescription drug called Coumadin (aka Warfarin) - (however, Coumadin and Warfarin each have tiny modifications that have be done to them... so each one is NOT the same and neither of them are the same as courmarin - see The Chemistry of Essential Oils Made Simple pg 376)   Rats and dogs which have been repeatedly fed coumarin have shown signs of extensive liver damage, testicular atrophy, growth retardation, and cardiac paralysis. However, in my humble opinion, this is a one of those cases where we have taken one part of nature, magnified it, distorted it slightly, and then "proven" that doing so was "bad". Please see Nature's Synergistic Mastery

The reality is that coumarin is not anticoagulant: "Although coumarin derivatives are used as anticoagulant drugs (such as warfarin, dicoumarin, etc.) coumarin itself is not anticoagulant." (Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals)   Coumarins in essential oils are said to be supporters of the immune system.




 Cryptone  Ketone    
Eucalyptus (Dives)



 Curzerene      
Myrrh (22%-40.8%)



 Cymene      
Cumin Seed
Lime
 



 Dihydrotagetone  Ketone (Monoterpene)    
Tagetes



 Dipentene  Phenylpropane    



 Egomaketone  Ketone    
Perilla (28%)



 Elemicin  Ester    
Elemi (3.7%-4.4%)



 Elemicine      
Nutmeg (0.4%-1.4%)



 Elemol  Alcohol (Sesquiterpene)    
Amyris
Citronella
 Elemi (11.6%-12%)



 Eudesmol      
Elemi (0.5%-0.6%)
Geranium (0%-4.9%)
 



 Eugenol  Phenol    
Allspice
Basil
Carnation
 Clove Bud (67.6%-80.9%)
Dill Seed
Nutmeg (0.3%-1.7%)
 Spikenard
Tuberose
 
 Notes About Eugenol: Eugenol has a characteristic spicy scent. It has been suggested that anyone who is taking anti-coagulant drugs (blood thinners) should avoid essential oils high in Eugenol. Eugenol: A Review of a Remarkable and Versatile Molecule



 Eugenyl acetate  Ester    
Clove Bud (3%)



 α-Farnesene  Sesquiterpene    
Chamomile (German) (4%)



 β-Farnesene  Sesquiterpene    
Chamomile (German) (62%)
Lavender (English) (0%-1.7%)
 Lavender (Spike) (0.4%)



 Farnesol  Alcohol (Sesquiterpene)    
Palmarosa (0%-1.5%)
Tuberose
 



 Fenchol
      C10H18O
      
Fennel



 Furanoeudsmadiene      
Myrrh (25.6%-49.1%)



 Galbanol      



 Geranial  Aldehyde  anti-microbial   
Geranium (0%-1.2%)
Ginger (0.4%-6.6%)
Lemon (0.9%-1.7%)
 Lemon Verbena (22%)
Lemongrass
May Chang (39.2%-49.8%)
 Melissa (9.4%-47%)
Palmarosa (0%-2.8%)
 
 Notes About Geranial: Geranial is also known as the E-isomer of Citral = Citral A   Geranial has a strong lemon scent and strong anti-microbial properties.



 Geranil acetate      
Palmarosa (29%)



 Geraniol  Alcohol (Monoterpene)    
Citronella
Clary Sage
Coriander
Eucalyptus (Citriodora)
Geranium (9.5%-16.4%)
 Jamrosa
Lemon Verbena (8%)
Lemongrass
Linaloe Berry
Melissa (0.9%-4.4%)
 Palmarosa (63.5%-83.8%)
Rose Otto
Tuberose



 Geranyl acetate  Ester    
Geranium (0%-7.7%)
Ginger (0%-0.6%)
 Jamrosa
Lemon (0%-0.4%)
 Melissa (0.3%-1.9%)
Palmarosa (4.6%-10.4%)
 



 Geranyl butyrate  Ester    
Geranium (0.8%-2.3%)



 Geranyl formate  Ester    
Geranium (0%-5.9%)



 Geranyl propanoate  Ester    
Geranium (0%-1.3%)



 Geranyl tiglate  Ester    
Geranium (1.1%-1.4%)



 Germacrene A  Ketone (Sesquiterpene)    
Galbanum (1%)
Myrrh (1.2%-2.6%)
 



 Germacrene D  Ketone (Sesquiterpene)    
Frankincense (0.3%-1.4%)
Galbanum (0.3%)
 Geranium (0%-1.4%)
Ginger (1.2%-1.3%)
 Myrrh (0.6%-1.6%)
Palo Santo (2%)
 



 Germacrone  Ketone (Sesquiterpene)    
Zdravetz



 Globulol  Sesquiterpene    
Kunzea



 Helenine      
Elecampane Root
 
 Notes About Helenine: This constituent was first written about by Lefebure and Geoffroy the younger. Helenine is a yellowish oil and its heavier than water and will always settle to the bottom after steam distillation regardless of water temperature.



 α-Humulene
      C15H24
  Sesquiterpene    
Clove Bud (2.2%-4.2%)
Frankincense (0%-1.3%)
Hop Flower
 Myrrh (0%-0.2%)
Perilla (0.2%)
Pine (Scotch) (0.3%)
 Sage
 
 Notes About α-Humulene: α-Humulene is the same thing as Humulene is the same thing as α-Caryophyllene, α-Caryophyllene being the obsolete name. α-Humulene and β-Caryophyllene are isomer pairs often found together in nature.



 Inuline      
Elecampane
Elecampane Root
 



 Irone  Ketone    
Orris Root (Florentina)



 Isobornyl valerianate  Ester    
Spikenard



 Italidione  Ketone    
Helichrysum



 Jasmone  Ketone    
Jasmine
Neroli (Portugal)
 



 Khusimol      
Vetiver



 Lavandulyl acetate  Ester    
Lavender (English) (1.9%-3.1%)
Yarrow (0%-1.3%)
 



 Limonene
      C10H16
  Monoterpene  anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial   
Angelica
Bergamot
Black Pepper (15.3%-19%)
Caraway
Cardamom
Carrot Seed
Catnip (0.3%)
Celery Seed
Chamomile (Moroccan)
Chamomile (Roman) (0%-2.6%)
Clary Sage
Cumin Seed
Dill Seed
Elemi (52.6%-52.8%)
 Eucalyptus (Radiata) (1%)
Fennel
Frankincense (8.5%-18.9%)
Geranium (0%-5.3%)
Ginger (1.3%-2.6%)
Grapefruit
Lavender (English) (0.3%-0.8%)
Lavender (Spike) (1.1%-1.2%)
Lemon (63.7%-72.8%)
Lemon Verbena (19%)
Lemongrass
Lime (56%)
Linaloe Berry
Mandarin (Green)
 Mastic
May Chang (2.1%-12.7%)
Neroli (Portugal)
Nutmeg (4%-5.6%)
Orange (Sweet)
Palo Santo
Peppermint (2.9%-3.3%)
Pine (Scotch) (3.9%-7.4%)
Spearmint (11%-25%)
Tangerine
Tea Tree (0%-1.1%)
Yarrow (0%-1.6%)
Yuzu
 
 Notes About Limonene: Limonene easily oxidizes in moist air thus producing Carveol,  Carvone, and limonene-1,2-oxide.   Limonene-1,2-oxide is a known skin sensitizer. (Wikipedia  - Limonene)   This a major reason why citrus-type oils, oils high in Limonene, have shorter shelf lives.

Limonene by itself is commonly used as a cleaning solvent and a paint striper and is used by some as an alternative to acetone for the removal of fingernail polish.

Limonene is grouped into two categories: d-Limonene (dextro-Limonene) and l-Limonene (laevo-Limonene). At this point in my research I have decided not to differentiate between the two, however, I may choose to make a distinction between the two sub-groups in the future if I deem it necessary and useful.




 Linalol  Alcohol (Terpene)    
Basil
Bay Laurel
Blue Tansy
Clary Sage
Geranium (1%-10.2%)
Lavender (English) (27%-37.1%)
Lavender (Spike) (38%-45%)
 Lime
Linaloe Berry
Melissa (0.6%-0.9%)
Neroli (Portugal)
Palmarosa (2.1%-4.3%)
Petitgrain
Rose Otto
 Rosewood
Sage
Tangerine
Thyme
Ylang Ylang



 Linalool
      C10H18O
    anti-microbial   
Bergamot
Bergamot Mint (33%-46%)
Carnation
 Hyssop
Lavender (English)
Peppermint
 Perilla (1%)
Rosewood
 
 Notes About LinaloolLinalool



 Linalool acetate      
Lavender (English) (35.2%-39.6%)
Lavender (Spike) (0%)
 



 Linalyl acetate  Ester  anti-fungal, calming, relaxing  
Bergamot
Bergamot Mint (19%-37%)
Chamomile (Cape)
Clary Sage
Lavender (English) (35.4%-48%)
 Lavender (Spike) (0.2%-0.6%)
Linaloe Berry
Marjoram (Sweet)
Neroli (Portugal)
Petitgrain
 



 Lindeatrene      
Myrrh (3.6%-8.6%)



 Menthol  Alcohol (Terpene)    
Peppermint (33.8%-39%)
Spearmint
 



 iso-Menthol      
Peppermint (0%-0.5%)



 Menthone  Ketone    
Geranium (0%-2.4%)
Peppermint (21.4%-22.9%)
 



 iso-Menthone  Ketone    
Geranium (4.1%-6.4%)
Peppermint (4.3%-4.8%)
 



 Methacrylic ester  Ester    
Chamomile (Roman) (3%)



 Methyl acetate  Ester    
Peppermint (4.2%-4.9%)



 Methyl allyl angelate  Ester    
Chamomile (Roman) (10.4%-36.5%)



 Methyl butyl acetate  Ester    
Chamomile (Roman) (0.5%)



 Methyl butyl angelate  Ester    
Chamomile (Roman) (7.7%-9.6%)



 Methyl chavicol  Phenol    
Basil (85%)
Fennel
 Oregano
Tarragon
 
 
 Notes About Methyl chavicol: This consitituent is somewhat controversial because of mixed results from testing in the past. In 1976 some studies were done with mice which showed that Methyl chavicol (by itself) produced heptacellular carcinomas (Drinkwater et al.) while in May 1989 F. Tateo demonstrated that Basil oil was not genotoxic while Tarragon oil was. Whether Methyl chavicol is a problem or not is still up for debate. It's possible that Methyl chavicol when combined with constituent x causes problems. Or perhaps Methyl chavicol is not a factor at all…



 Methyl cresol      
Ylang Ylang



 Methyl eugenol  Phenol    
Bay Laurel
Nutmeg (0.8%-1.2%)
 
 
 Notes About Methyl eugenolMethyl eugenol: Its Occurance, Distribution, and Role in Nature



 Methyl isoeugenol  Phenol    
Citronella



 Methyl salicylate  Ester    
Birch (Sweet)
Tuberose
 Vanilla
Wintergreen
 Ylang Ylang



 3-Methylbutyl  Ester    
Chamomile (Roman) (6%)



 Mimonsine      
Mimosa
 
 Notes About Mimonsine: Mimonsine is an amino acid which, in large doses, is known to cause hair loss and depressed growth in mammals. (Amazon Tropical Plant Database)



 β-Myrcene  Monoterpene    
Bay Laurel
Black Pepper (2%-2.1%)
Elemi (1%)
Eucalyptus (Radiata) (0.3%-1.4%)
Frankincense (4.9%-7.7%)
Galbanum (2%)
Grapefruit
 Juniper Berry
Lavender (English) (0.5%-0.7%)
Lavender (Spike) (0.4%-0.6%)
Lemon (1.4%-1.7%)
Lemon Verbena (1%)
Mastic (17%)
May Chang (0%-1.7%)
 Melissa (0.1%-0.6%)
Nutmeg (2%)
Palmarosa (0.1%-0.4%)
Pine (Scotch) (3.8%-4.2%)
Tangerine
Tea Tree (0.9%-1.1%)
Yarrow (0%-9.2%)
 
 
 Notes About β-Myrcene: Only β-Myrcene occurs in nature.



 Myristic acid      
Nutmeg
Orris Root (Florentina) (85%)
 
 
 Notes About Myristic acid: This is a fatty acid (aka Tetradecanoic acid)



 Myristicin  Phenol    
Dill Seed
Nutmeg (9.9%-13.6%)
 



 Nepatalactone  Lactone    
Catnip (79%)



 Neral  Aldehyde  anti-microbial   
Geranium (0%-0.5%)
Ginger (0%-4.1%)
Lemon (0.6%-1%)
 Lemongrass
May Chang (29.1%-42.4%)
Melissa (7.8%-29.2%)
 Palmarosa (0.2%-1.5%)
 
 Notes About Neral: Neral is also known as the Z-isomer of Citral = Citral B   Neral has a sweet lemon scent and strong anti-microbial properties.



 Nerol  Alcohol (Terpene)    
Clary Sage
Geranium (0%-0.6%)
Helichrysum
Lemon Verbena (6%)
Linaloe Berry
 Melissa (0.3%-1.8%)
Myrtle
Neroli (Portugal)
Palmarosa (0%-0.2%)
Rose Otto
 Tangerine
Tuberose



 Neryl acetate  Ester (Terpene)    
Helichrysum
Lemon (0.3%-0.5%)
 Linaloe Berry



 Nootketone  Ketone    
Grapefruit



 Octanone  Ketone    
Lavender (English) (1.3%-1.8%)



 Octonal  Alcohol (Terpene)    
Grapefruit



 Para-cymene      
Elemi (0.9%-1.5%)
Frankincense (4.1%-5.1%)
 Nutmeg (1.5%-2.1%)
Pine (Scotch) (0%-0.3%)
 Tea Tree (1.4%-3.1%)



 Patchouli alcohol  Alcohol (Sesquiterpene)    
Spikenard



 Patchoulol      
Patchouli



 Peperine  Alcohol    



 Perillaketone  Ketone    
Perilla (55%)



 α-Phellandrene  Monoterpene    
Black Pepper (2%-2.1%)
Elemi (13.6%-14.1%)
 Frankincense (1.2%-3.3%)
Mastic (8%)
 Nutmeg (1%)



 β-Phellandrene  Monoterpene    
Elemi (1.8%-2.1%)
Frankincense (0.4%-0.8%)
Galbanum (2%)
 Ginger (0%-6.2%)
Lavender (English) (0%-0.2%)
Mastic (4%)
 Nutmeg (1.9%-2.5%)
Pine (Scotch) (0%-1%)



 Phenethyl cinnamate  Ester    
Balsam Poplar



 Pinene  Monoterpene  anti-septic  
Basil
Bay Laurel
Cajeput
Carrot Seed
Clary Sage
 Coriander
Dill Seed
Eucalyptus (Citriodora)
Hyssop
Manuka (Lemon)
 Ravensara
Rosemary
Spikenard
Tangerine



 α-Pinene
      C10H16
  Monoterpene    
Black Pepper (4%-10.5%)
Chamomile (Moroccan)
Chamomile (Roman) (2.2%-10.5%)
Elemi (0.3%)
Eucalyptus (Radiata) (0.6%-3.4%)
Frankincense (21.8%-30%)
Galbanum (7%)
Geranium (0%-0.6%)
 Ginger (1.8%-2.8%)
Juniper Berry
Kunzea (52%)
Lavender (English) (0%-0.5%)
Lavender (Spike) (1.6%-1.9%)
Lemon (1.5%-2.1%)
Lime (2%)
Mastic (18%)
 May Chang (0.2%-1.6%)
Nutmeg (10.2%-23.4%)
Peppermint (0%-0.7%)
Pine (Scotch) (26.9%-40.7%)
Tea Tree (2.5%-3%)
Yarrow (2.4%-3.9%)
Yuzu



 β-Pinene
      C10H16
  Monoterpene    
Black Pepper (8%-9%)
Chamomile (Roman) (0.2%-2.7%)
Eucalyptus (Radiata) (0.8%-1.9%)
Frankincense (0.9%-1.6%)
Galbanum (46%)
 Lavender (Spike) (1.8%-2.4%)
Lemon (8.8%-13.3%)
Lime (11%)
Mastic (3%)
May Chang (0%-1.2%)
 Nutmeg (14.1%-15.2%)
Peppermint (1.1%-1.4%)
Pine (Scotch) (0%-5.8%)
Tea Tree (0.8%-1%)
Yarrow (10.2%-15%)
 



 Pinocamphone  Ketone    
Hyssop



 Pinocarvone  Ketone    
Catnip (1%)
Chamomile (Roman) (2.2%-4.9%)
 Eucalyptus (Globulus)
 
 Notes About Pinocarvone: Nontoxic



 Piperine      
Black Pepper
 
 Notes About Piperine: Piperine is the element in pepper which makes it hot.



 Pulegone      
Catnip (2%)
Palo Santo (1%)
 Peppermint (2.4%-3.7%)
Spearmint
 
 
 Notes About Pulegone: Pulegone is toxic in high concentrations. Pennyroyal and Bucho oils are toxic because of high percentages of Pulegone (80%+). Pulegone is less of a problem in low concentrations such as that found in Peppermint.



 iso-Pulegone      
Peppermint (0%-0.1%)



 cis-Rose oxide  Oxide    
Geranium (0%-1.1%)



 trans-Rose oxide  Oxide    
Geranium (0%-0.5%)



 Sabinene  Phenylpropane    
Chamomile (Roman) (0%)
Elemi (4.2%-4.6%)
Frankincense (5%-6.8%)
Galbanum (1%)
Grapefruit
 Juniper Berry
Lemon (1.7%-2%)
Lime
May Chang (0.1%-0.7%)
Nutmeg (10.9%-21.4%)
 Peppermint (0.4%-0.6%)
Pine (Scotch) (0.1%-0.5%)
Plai (18%)
Yarrow (22.1%-31.4%)



 Safrole  Phenol    
Basil
Nutmeg (1.4%-4.3%)
 
 
 Notes About Safrole: Safrole is a known precursor to the manufacture of hallucinogenic, narcotic, and psychotropic substances.



 α-Santalol  Alcohol    
Sandalwood (Australian)



 β-Santalol  Alcohol    
Sandalwood (Australian)



 Sclareol
      C20H36O2
  Alcohol (Diterpene)    
Clary Sage
 
 Notes About Sclareol: It's commonly said that Sclareol is a rare constituent which mimics the effects of estrogen. However, this may or may not be true. This comment stems from the work done by Franchomme & Pénöel which says that Sclareol has a similar structure to that of human estrogens. However, Robert Tisserand states, "Sclareol is a labdane diterpene, and this class of molecule does not incorporate estrogen-like structures, nor is it noted for estrogenic activity (Topçu and Gören 2007)" www.roberttisserand.com. Looking on Wikipedia we find that Sclareol is a "bicyclic diterpene alcohol" which is certainly a chemical structure very different from that of estrogen. So, if Sclareol does have some sort of estrogen-type characteristic, it seems unknown to me at this time. I certainly welcome any research that has been done concerning this topic. jonnsaromatherapy@yahoo.com

Furthermore, on Wikipedia we learn that, "Sclareol is also able to kill human leukemic cells and colon cancer cells by apoptosis". The reference link there takes us to the National Center for Biotechnology Information where the abstract asserts that Sclareol is a "labdane-type diterpene" and goes on to explain that Sclareol is effective at killing leukemic and colon cancer cells.




 Sedanenolide      
Celery Seed



 Sedanolide      
Celery Seed



 β-Selinene      
Celery Seed



 β-Sesquiphellandrene  Sesquiterpene    
Ginger (7.8%-12.6%)



 Sinensal  Aldehyde (Sesquiterpene)    
Orange (Sweet)



 Styrene      
Benzoin



 Tagetone  Ketone (Monoterpene)    
Tagetes



 Terpinen-4-ol
      C10H18O
  Monoterpenol  anti-inflammatory   
Eucalyptus (Radiata) (0%-1.5%)
Frankincense (0.1%-1.4%)
Juniper Berry
Lavender (English) (0.4%-3.7%)
Lemon (0%-0.1%)
 Marjoram (Sweet)
Mastic (5%)
Nutmeg (4.7%-13.9%)
Pine (Scotch) (0%-0.1%)
Plai (40%)
 Tea Tree (35.4%-41%)
Yarrow (0.8%-3.2%)



 Terpinene  Phenylpropane    
Clary Sage
Coriander
 Marjoram (Sweet)



 α-Terpinene      
Black Pepper (13.4%-15%)
Elemi (0.3%)
Lemon (0%-0.2%)
 Nutmeg (2.7%-4.3%)
Pine (Scotch) (0.2%)
Tea Tree (9.9%-11.4%)
 Yarrow (0%-0.6%)



 γ-Terpinene
      C10H16
  Monoterpene    
Elemi (0.2%-0.3%)
Frankincense (0.2%-0.6%)
Lemon (7%-10.6%)
 Lime (14%)
Nutmeg (3.8%-6.3%)
Pine (Scotch) (0.4%)
 Tea Tree (20.3%-22.6%)
Yarrow (0.6%-2.6%)



 Terpineol  Alcohol (Monoterpene)    
Basil
Cajeput
Cardamom
 Carrot Seed
Petitgrain
Ravensara
 Spikenard



 α-Terpineol
      C10H18O
  Monoterpenol    
Elemi (2.1%-2.3%)
Eucalyptus (Radiata) (1.2%-7.5%)
Geranium (0%-1%)
 Lemon (0.1%-0.2%)
Nutmeg (0.7%-3.1%)
Pine (Scotch) (0.2%-0.9%)
 Tea Tree (2.6%-2.9%)
Yarrow (0.5%-2.4%)



 Terpineol acetate      
Bay Laurel
Marjoram (Sweet)
 



 Terpinolene      
Celery Seed
Clary Sage
Elemi (1%)
 Lemon (0.2%-0.4%)
Neroli (Portugal)
Nutmeg (1.6%-1.9%)
 Pine (Scotch) (0%-2.6%)
Tea Tree (3.3%-3.7%)



 Terpinyl acetate      
Galbanum (0.3%)
Pine (Scotch) (0%-0.6%)
 



 Thujol  Alcohol (Monoterpene)    
Clary Sage



 Thujone
      C10H16O
  Ketone    
Mugwort
Thuja
 
 
 Notes About Thujone: Thujone is somewhat poisonous, especially in high doses or with repeated use. Thujone is a neurotoxin. Exposure to high concentrations of it via inhalation, topical application on the skin, or internal consumption can cause convulsions, tremors, paralysis, gastro-enteritis, vomiting, and abortions due to reflex uterine contractions and uterine bleeding. Essential oils containing it in low percentages should be used with caution and respect and never be allowed to touch the skin undiluted. Always be cautious when working with oils containing Thujone. For further information research studies done by Keith and Starraky in 1935. Several sources do not make a distinction between α-Thujone, β-Thujone, and Thujone.



 α-Thujone
      C10H16O
  Ketone    
Blue Tansy
Cypress
 Hyssop
Juniper Berry
 
 
 Notes About α-Thujone: Thujone is somewhat poisonous, especially in high doses or with repeated use. Thujone is a neurotoxin. Exposure to high concentrations of it via inhalation, topical application on the skin, or internal consumption can cause convulsions, tremors, paralysis, gastro-enteritis, vomiting, and abortions due to reflex uterine contractions and uterine bleeding. Essential oils containing it in low percentages should be used with caution and respect and never be allowed to touch the skin undiluted. Always be cautious when working with oils containing Thujone. For further information research studies done by Keith and Starraky in 1935. Several sources do not make a distinction between α-Thujone, β-Thujone, and Thujone.



 β-Thujone
      C10H16O
  Ketone    
Blue Tansy
Sage
 
 
 Notes About β-Thujone: Thujone is somewhat poisonous, especially in high doses or with repeated use. Thujone is a neurotoxin. Exposure to high concentrations of it via inhalation, topical application on the skin, or internal consumption can cause convulsions, tremors, paralysis, gastro-enteritis, vomiting, and abortions due to reflex uterine contractions and uterine bleeding. Essential oils containing it in low percentages should be used with caution and respect and never be allowed to touch the skin undiluted. Always be cautious when working with oils containing Thujone. For further information research studies done by Keith and Starraky in 1935. Several sources do not make a distinction between α-Thujone, β-Thujone, and Thujone.



 α-Thuyene  Monoterpene    
Frankincense (1.5%-23.8%)
Nutmeg (0.8%-2.6%)
 Tea Tree (1%-1.1%)



 α-Thyene      
Blue Tansy



 Thymol
      C10H14O
  Phenol  anti-bacterial, anti-septic   
Catnip (2%)
Oregano
 Thyme
 
 Notes About Thymol: Strong Skin Irritant



 Valepotrits      
Valerian



 Valeranone  Ketone (Sesquiterpene)    
Spikenard
Valerian
 



 Valereal      
Valerian



 Valerenic acid      
Valerian



 Valerianol  Alcohol (Sesquiterpene)    
Amyris
Valerian
 



 Vanillin      
Balsam de Peru
Vanilla
 
 
 Notes About Vanillin: Also known as 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde



 Verbenone  Ketone    
Rosemary (Verbenon)



 Vetiverol  Alcohol (Terpene)    
Vetiver



 α-Vetivone  Ketone    
Vetiver



 β-Vetivone  Ketone    
Vetiver



 Viridiflorol      
Kunzea
Peppermint
 Sage



 Vitivene      
Vetiver



 Vitiverone  Ketone    
Vetiver



 Zingiberene      
Cardamom



 α-Zingiberene  Sesquiterpene    
Ginger (25.6%-31.5%)





Table of Carrier Oil Consistituents
Constituent Effect Found In:

 Capric    Babassu   Coconut (Unrefined)   Plum Kernel  


 Caprylic    Babassu   Coconut (Fractionated)   Coconut (Refined)   Coconut (Unrefined)  


 Docosenoic    Borage Seed  


 Icosenoic    Borage Seed   Pomegranate Seed  


 Lauric    Babassu   Coconut (Unrefined)   Palm Kernel   Plum Kernel  


 Linoleic    Almond (Sweet)   Andiroba   Apricot Kernel   Argan   Avocado   Babassu   Black Cumin   Black Currant Seed   Borage Seed   Camellia   Castor   Coconut (Unrefined)   Evening Primrose Seed   Gevuina   Hazelnut   Hemp Seed   Kukui Nut   Macadamia Nut   Marula   Moringa   Olive   Peanut   Pomegranate Seed   Pumpkin Seed   Raspberry Seed   Rice Bran   Rosehip Seed   Rosehip Seed   Safflower   Sea Buckthorn   Sesame   Shea Nut   Soybean   Sunflower   Walnut   Wheat Germ   Yangu Seed  


 Linolenic    Almond (Sweet)   Apricot Kernel   Avocado   Black Cumin   Castor   Kukui Nut   Macadamia Nut   Olive   Palm Kernel   Plum Kernel   Raspberry Seed   Rice Bran   Rosehip Seed   Rosehip Seed   Safflower   Soybean   Walnut   Wheat Germ  


 α-Linolenic    Hemp Seed   Marula   Perilla Seed   Pomegranate Seed   Shea Nut  


 γ-Linolenic    Black Currant Seed   Borage Seed   Evening Primrose Seed   Hemp Seed   Rosehip Seed  


 Myristic    Babassu   Coconut (Unrefined)   Moringa   Palm Kernel   Plum Kernel   Walnut  


 Oleic    Almond (Sweet)   Andiroba   Apricot Kernel   Avocado   Babassu   Black Cumin   Black Currant Seed   Borage Seed   Camellia   Castor   Coconut (Unrefined)   Evening Primrose Seed   Gevuina   Hazelnut   Hemp Seed   Kukui Nut   Macadamia Nut   Marula   Moringa   Olive   Palm Kernel   Peanut   Perilla Seed   Plum Kernel   Pomegranate Seed   Pumpkin Seed   Raspberry Seed   Rice Bran   Rosehip Seed   Rosehip Seed   Safflower   Sea Buckthorn   Sesame   Shea Nut   Soybean   Sunflower   Tamanu   Walnut   Wheat Germ   Yangu Seed  


 Omega 3    Cranberry Seed   Pumpkin Seed   Rosehip Seed  


 Omega 6    Argan   Cranberry Seed   Pumpkin Seed   Rosehip Seed  


 Omega 9    Cranberry Seed  


 Palitic    Avocado  


 Palmitic    Almond (Sweet)   Andiroba   Apricot Kernel   Babassu   Black Cumin   Black Currant Seed   Borage Seed   Camellia   Castor   Coconut (Unrefined)   Evening Primrose Seed   Gevuina   Hazelnut   Hemp Seed   Marula   Moringa   Olive   Palm Kernel   Peanut   Perilla Seed   Plum Kernel   Pomegranate Seed   Pumpkin Seed   Raspberry Seed   Rice Bran   Rosehip Seed   Rosehip Seed   Safflower   Sea Buckthorn   Sesame   Shea Nut   Soybean   Sunflower   Tamanu   Walnut   Wheat Germ   Yangu Seed  


 Palmitoleic    Andiroba   Gevuina   Macadamia Nut   Moringa   Sea Buckthorn   Walnut  


 Punicic    Pomegranate Seed  


 Ricinoleic    Castor  


 Stearic    Almond (Sweet)   Andiroba   Avocado   Babassu   Black Cumin   Black Currant Seed   Borage Seed   Camellia   Coconut (Unrefined)   Hemp Seed   Marula   Moringa   Pomegranate Seed   Pumpkin Seed   Raspberry Seed   Rice Bran   Rosehip Seed   Sea Buckthorn   Sesame   Shea Nut   Sunflower   Tamanu   Walnut  

  Oils A-B      Oils C-E      Oils F-J      Oils K-N      Oils O-R      Oils S-Z  
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  Reference SourcesLast Update ☆ ~~ Jan 28, 2014   Home

  ~  The Recommended Fine Print  ~
All information, suggestions, and opinions shown on this website are for educational purposes only and do not replace
medical advice nor are they intended to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent any disease or health problems.
I am NOT a doctor and never, ever want to be one!         I am not responsible for any of your health choices!
Information given here has not been evaluated by the US FDA nor by any other U.S. governing body to the
best of my knowledge nor does it replace the advice of any licensed health-care professional.
Your health is your responsibility!!   Peace out.   ~ Jonn ☆ ~~